Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2022
|Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies||Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
Consolidation and Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of all subsidiaries; inter-company accounts and
transactions have been eliminated. All trust entities in which the Company holds investments that are considered variable interest entities, or VIEs, for financial reporting purposes were reviewed for consolidation under the applicable consolidation guidance. Whenever the Company has both the power to direct the activities of a trust that most significantly impact the entities’ performance, and the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits of the entities that could be significant, the Company consolidates the trust. The accounting and reporting policies of the Company conform to U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or U.S. GAAP. Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. All per share amounts, common shares outstanding and common equity-based awards for the year ended December 31, 2022 and all prior periods reflect the Company’s one-for-four reverse stock split effected on November 1, 2022 at 5:01 p.m. Eastern Time (refer to Note 16 - Stockholders’ Equity for additional information).
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make a number of significant estimates. These include estimates of fair value of certain assets and liabilities, amount and timing of credit losses, prepayment rates, the period of time during which the Company anticipates an increase in the fair values of real estate securities sufficient to recover unrealized losses in those securities, and other estimates that affect the reported amounts of certain assets and liabilities as of the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of certain revenues and expenses during the reported period. It is likely that changes in these estimates (e.g., valuation changes due to supply and demand in the market, credit performance, prepayments, interest rates, or other reasons) will occur in the near term. The Company’s estimates are inherently subjective in nature and actual results could differ from its estimates and the differences may be material.
Significant Accounting Policies
Variable Interest Entities
The Company enters into transactions with subsidiary trust entities that are established for limited purposes. One of the Company’s subsidiary trust entities, MSR Issuer Trust, was formed for the purpose of financing MSR through securitization, pursuant to which, through two of the Company’s wholly owned subsidiaries, MSR is pledged to MSR Issuer Trust and in return, MSR Issuer Trust issues term notes to qualified institutional buyers and a variable funding note, or VFN, to one of the subsidiaries, in each case secured on a pari passu basis.
Another of the Company’s subsidiary trust entities, Servicing Advance Receivables Issuer Trust, was formed for the purpose of financing servicing advances through a revolving credit facility, pursuant to which Servicing Advance Receivables Issuer Trust issued a VFN backed by servicing advances pledged to the financing counterparty.
Both MSR Issuer Trust and Servicing Advance Receivables Issuer Trust are considered VIEs for financial reporting purposes and were reviewed for consolidation under the applicable consolidation guidance. As the Company has both the power to direct the activities of the trusts that most significantly impact the entities’ performance, and the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits of the entities that could be significant, the Company is the primary beneficiary and, thus, consolidates the trusts.
Additionally, as discussed in Note 1 - Organization and Operations, the Company has entered into a definitive stock purchase agreement to acquire RoundPoint whereby the purchase price will be subject to an adjustment based on RoundPoint’s aggregate “earnings” (as defined in the agreement) from October 1, 2022 through the closing date, or the Interim Period, in addition to other post-closing adjustments. The manner in which the purchase price is calculated represents an implicit guarantee of the value of RoundPoint’s net book value, in which the Company holds the variable interests. These terms also indicate that RoundPoint meets the criteria to be considered a VIE that the Company must review for consolidation. As the Company has the obligation to absorb losses and the right to receive benefits of RoundPoint during the Interim Period that could be significant, but not the power to direct the activities of RoundPoint that most significantly impacts its performance, the Company is not the primary beneficiary and, thus, does not consolidate RoundPoint.
Available-for-Sale Securities, at Fair Value
The Company invests primarily in mortgage pass-through certificates, collateralized mortgage obligations and other residential mortgage-backed securities representing interests in or obligations backed by pools of mortgage loans issued by a U.S. government sponsored enterprise, or GSE, such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (or Fannie Mae) or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (or Freddie Mac), or a U.S. government agency such as the Government National Mortgage Association (or Ginnie Mae) (collectively “Agency RMBS”). The Company also holds securities that are not issued by a GSE or U.S government agency, or non-Agency securities, and, from time to time, U.S. Treasuries.
The Company classifies its Agency RMBS and non-Agency securities, excluding inverse interest-only Agency securities which are classified as derivatives for purposes of U.S. GAAP, as available-for-sale, or AFS, investments. Although the Company generally intends to hold most of its investment securities until maturity, it may, from time to time, sell any of its investment securities as part of its overall management of its portfolio. Accordingly, the Company classifies all of its securities as AFS, including its interest-only strips, which represent the Company’s right to receive a specified portion of the contractual interest flows of specific Agency or non-Agency securities. All assets classified as AFS, excluding certain AFS securities for which we have elected the fair value option, are reported at estimated fair value with unrealized gains and losses included in accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income.
On July 1, 2015, the Company elected the fair value option for Agency interest-only securities acquired on or after such date. On July 1, 2021, the Company elected the fair value option for all non-Agency securities acquired on or after such date. All Agency interest-only securities acquired on or after July 1, 2015 and all non-Agency securities acquired on or after July 1, 2021 are carried at estimated fair value with changes in fair value recorded as a component of (loss) gain on investment securities in the consolidated statements of comprehensive loss.
Fair value is determined under the guidance of Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, or ASC 820. The Company determines the fair value of its RMBS that are issued or guaranteed as to principal and/or interest by a GSE or U.S. government agency, based upon prices obtained from third-party pricing vendors or broker quotes received using the bid price, which are both deemed indicative of market activity. In determining the fair value of its non-Agency securities, management judgment is used to arrive at fair value that considers prices obtained from third-party pricing vendors, broker quotes received and other applicable market data. If listed price data is not available or insufficient, then fair value is based upon internally developed models that are primarily based on observable market-based inputs but also include unobservable market data inputs. See Note 10 - Fair Value of these notes to the consolidated financial statements for details on fair value measurement.
Investment securities transactions are recorded on the trade date. The cost basis for realized gains and losses on sales of investment securities are determined on the first-in, first-out, or FIFO, method.
Interest income (i.e., gross yield/stated coupon) on securities is accrued based on the outstanding principal balance and their contractual terms. Premiums and discounts associated with Agency RMBS and non-Agency securities rated AA and higher at the time of purchase, are amortized and accreted, respectively, as an adjustment to interest income over the life of such securities using the contractual method under ASC 310-20, Nonrefundable Fees and Other Costs, which is applied at the individual security level based upon each security’s effective interest rate. The Company calculates each security’s effective interest rate at the time of purchase by solving for the discount rate that equates the present value of that security's remaining contractual cash flows, assuming no principal prepayments, to its purchase price. When applying the contractual effective interest method, as principal prepayments occur, an amount of the unamortized premium or discount is recognized in interest income such that the contractual effective interest rate on the remaining security balance is unaffected.
Discounts associated with non-Agency securities that were purchased at a discount to par value and were rated below AA at the time of purchase and Agency and non-Agency interest-only securities that can be contractually prepaid or otherwise settled in such a way that the Company would not recover substantially all of its recorded investment are accreted as an adjustment to interest income over the life of such securities using the prospective method under ASC 325-40, Investments - Other: Beneficial Interests in Securitized Financial Assets, which is applied at the individual security level based upon each security’s effective interest rate. At the time of acquisition, the security’s effective interest rate is calculated by solving for the single discount rate that equates the present value of the Company’s best estimate of the amount and timing of the cash flows expected to be collected from the security to its purchase price. On at least a quarterly basis, the Company reviews and, if appropriate, makes adjustments to its cash flow projections based on input and analysis received from external sources, internal models, and its judgment about interest rates, prepayment rates, the timing and amount of credit losses, and other factors. Changes in cash flows from those originally projected, or from those estimated at the last evaluation, may result in a prospective change in the effective interest rate and interest income recognized on such securities.
Actual maturities of the AFS securities are affected by the contractual lives of the associated mortgage collateral, periodic payments of principal, and prepayments of principal. Therefore actual maturities of AFS securities are generally shorter than stated contractual maturities. Stated contractual maturities are generally greater than ten years.
The Company uses a discounted cash flow method to estimate and recognize an allowance for credit losses on both Agency and non-Agency AFS securities that are not accounted for under the fair value option. The initial estimated allowance for credit losses is equal to the difference between the prepayment adjusted contractual cash flows with no credit losses and the prepayment adjusted expected cash flows with credit losses, discounted at the effective interest rate on the AFS security. The contractual cash flows and expected cash flows are based on management’s best estimate and take into consideration current prepayment assumptions, lifetime expected losses based on past loss experience, current market conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts of future conditions. The allowance for credit losses on Agency AFS securities relates to prepayment assumption changes on interest-only Agency RMBS. The initial allowance for credit losses causes an increase in the AFS security amortized cost and recognizes an allowance for credit losses in the same amount. Subsequent adverse or favorable changes in the allowance for credit losses are recognized immediately in earnings as a provision for or reduction in credit losses (within (loss) gain on investment securities). Adverse changes are reflected as an increase to the allowance for credit losses and favorable changes are reflected as a decrease to the allowance for credit losses. The allowance for credit losses is limited to the difference between the beneficial interest’s fair value and its amortized cost, and any remaining adverse changes in these circumstances are reflected as a prospective adjustment to accretable yield. If the allowance for credit losses has been reduced to zero, the remaining favorable changes are reflected as a prospective adjustment to accretable yield. The Company does not adjust the effective interest rate in subsequent periods for prepayment assumption changes or variable-rate changes. Any changes in the allowance for credit losses due to the time-value-of-money are accounted for in the consolidated statements of comprehensive loss as provision for credit losses rather than a reduction to interest income. Any portion of the AFS securities that is deemed uncollectible results in a write-off of the uncollectible amortized cost with a corresponding reduction to the allowance for credit losses. Recoveries of amounts previously written off results in an increase to the allowance for credit losses.
Mortgage Servicing Rights, at Fair Value
The Company’s MSR represent the right to service mortgage loans. The Company and its subsidiaries do not originate or directly service mortgage loans, and instead contract with appropriately licensed subservicers to handle substantially all servicing functions in the name of the subservicer for the loans underlying the Company’s MSR. However, as an owner and manager of MSR, the Company may be obligated to fund advances of principal and interest payments due to third-party owners of the loans, but not yet received from the individual borrowers. These advances are reported as servicing advances within the other assets line item on the consolidated balance sheets.
MSR are reported at fair value on the consolidated balance sheets. Although MSR transactions are observable in the marketplace, the valuation includes unobservable market data inputs (prepayment speeds; delinquency levels; option-adjusted spread, or OAS, which represents the incremental spread added to the risk-free rate to reflect the effects of any embedded options and other risk inherent in MSR; and cost to service). Changes in the fair value of MSR as well as servicing fee income and servicing expenses are reported on the consolidated statements of comprehensive loss.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash held in bank accounts and cash held in money market funds on an overnight basis.
Restricted cash represents cash balances the Company is required to maintain with counterparties for securities and derivatives trading activity, servicing activities and collateral for the Company’s borrowings. Also included is the cash balance held pursuant to a letter of credit on the New York office lease. Cash balances required to be maintained with counterparties are not available to the Company for general corporate purposes, but may be applied against amounts due to security, derivative, servicing or financing counterparties or returned to the Company when collateral requirements are exceeded, or at the maturity of the derivative or financing arrangement.
Accrued Interest Receivable
Accrued interest receivable represents interest that is due and payable to the Company. Cash interest is generally received within 30 days of recording the receivable.
Due from/to Counterparties, net
Due from counterparties includes cash held by counterparties for payment of principal and interest as well as cash held by counterparties for securities and derivatives trading activity, servicing activities and collateral for the Company’s borrowings but represents excess capacity and deemed unrestricted and a receivable from the counterparty as of the balance sheet date. Due from counterparties also includes cash receivable from counterparties for sales of MSR pending final transfer and settlement. Due to counterparties includes cash payable by the Company upon settlement of trade positions as well as cash deposited to and held by the Company for securities and derivatives trading activity, servicing activities and collateral for the Company’s borrowings but represents a payable to the counterparty as of the balance sheet date. Due to counterparties also includes purchase price holdbacks on MSR acquisitions for early prepayment or default provisions, collateral exceptions and other contractual terms.
Derivative Financial Instruments, at Fair Value
In accordance with ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging, or ASC 815, all derivative financial instruments, whether designated for hedging relationships or not, are recorded on the consolidated balance sheets as assets or liabilities and carried at fair value.
At the inception of a derivative contract, the Company determines whether the instrument will be part of a qualifying hedge accounting relationship or whether the Company will account for the contract as a trading instrument. Due to the volatility of the interest rate and credit markets and difficulty in effectively matching pricing or cash flows, the Company has elected to treat all current derivative contracts as trading instruments. Changes in fair value as well as the accrual and settlement of interest associated with derivatives accounted for as trading instruments are reported in the consolidated statements of comprehensive loss as gain (loss) on interest rate swap, cap and swaption agreements or gain (loss) on other derivative instruments depending on the type of derivative instrument.
The Company enters into interest rate derivative contracts for a variety of reasons, including minimizing fluctuations in earnings or market values on certain assets or liabilities that may be caused by changes in interest rates. The Company may, at times, enter into various forward contracts including short securities, Agency to-be-announced securities, or TBAs, options, futures, swaps, and caps. Due to the nature of these instruments, they may be in a receivable/asset position or a payable/liability position at the end of an accounting period. Amounts payable to and receivable from the same party under contracts may be offset as long as the following conditions are met: (a) each of the two parties owes the other determinable amounts; (b) the reporting party has the right to offset the amount owed with the amount owed by the other party; (c) the reporting party intends to offset; and (d) the right of offset is enforceable by law. If the aforementioned conditions are not met, amounts payable to and receivable from are presented by the Company on a gross basis in its consolidated balance sheets. The Company’s centrally cleared interest rate swaps and exchange-traded futures and options on futures require that the Company posts an “initial margin” amount determined by the clearing exchange, which is generally intended to be set at a level sufficient to protect the exchange from the derivative instrument’s maximum estimated single-day price movement. The Company also exchanges “variation margin” based upon daily changes in fair value, as measured by the exchange. The exchange of variation margin is considered a settlement of the derivative instrument, as opposed to pledged collateral. Accordingly, the Company accounts for the receipt or payment of variation margin as a direct reduction to the carrying value of the centrally cleared or exchange-traded derivative asset or liability. The receipt or payment of initial margin is accounted for separate from the derivative asset or liability and is netted on a counterparty basis and classified within restricted cash, due from counterparties, or due to counterparties on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets.
The Company has provided specific disclosure regarding the location and amounts of derivative instruments in the consolidated financial statements and how derivative instruments and related hedged items are accounted for. See Note 7 - Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities of these notes to the consolidated financial statements.
Reverse Repurchase Agreements
The Company may enter into reverse repurchase agreements with third-party broker-dealers whereby it purchases U.S. Treasury securities under agreements to resell at an agreed-upon price and date. Generally, the Company may enter into reverse repurchase agreement transactions in order to effectively borrow U.S. Treasury securities that it can then deliver to counterparties to whom it has made short sales of the same securities, earn a yield on excess cash balances, or preserve existing repurchase agreements by substituting collateral. The Company accounts for these reverse repurchase agreements as securities borrowing transactions and records them at their contractual amounts, as specified in the respective agreements.
The Company may finance certain of its investment securities and MSR through the use of repurchase agreements. These repurchase agreements are generally short-term debt, which expire within one year. At times, certain of the Company’s repurchase agreements may have contractual terms of greater than one year, and, thus, would be considered long-term debt. Borrowings under repurchase agreements generally bear interest rates based on an index plus a spread and are generally uncommitted. The repurchase agreements are treated as collateralized financing transactions and are carried at their contractual amounts, as specified in the respective agreements.
Revolving Credit Facilities
To finance MSR assets and related servicing advance obligations, the Company enters into revolving credit facilities collateralized by the value of the MSR and/or servicing advances pledged. Borrowings under these revolving credit facilities that expire within one year are considered short-term debt. As of December 31, 2022, the Company’s revolving credit facilities that had contractual terms of greater than one year were considered long-term debt. The Company’s revolving credit facilities generally bear interest rates based on an index plus a spread. Borrowings under revolving credit facilities are treated as collateralized financing transactions and are carried at contractual amounts, as specified in the respective agreements.
Term Notes Payable
Term notes payable related to the Company’s consolidated securitization are recorded at outstanding principal balance, net of any unamortized deferred debt issuance costs, on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets.
Convertible Senior Notes
Convertible senior notes include unsecured convertible debt that are carried at their unpaid principal balance, net of any unamortized deferred issuance costs, on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet. Interest on the notes is payable semiannually until such time the notes mature or are converted into shares of the Company’s common stock.
Accrued Interest Payable
Accrued interest payable represents interest that is due and payable to third parties. Interest is generally paid within 30 days to three months of recording the payable, based upon the Company’s remittance requirements.
Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities
Income recognition for U.S. GAAP and tax differ in certain respects. These differences often reflect differing accounting treatments for tax and U.S. GAAP, such as accounting for discount and premium amortization, credit losses, asset impairments, recognition of certain operating expenses and certain valuation estimates. Some of these differences are temporary in nature and create timing mismatches between when taxable income is earned and the tax is paid versus when the earnings (losses) for U.S. GAAP purposes, or GAAP net income (loss), are recognized and the tax provision is recorded. Some of these differences are permanent since certain income (or expense) may be recorded for tax purposes but not for U.S. GAAP purposes (or vice-versa). One such significant permanent difference is the Company’s ability as a REIT to deduct dividends paid to stockholders as an expense for tax purposes, but not for U.S. GAAP purposes.
As a result of these temporary differences, the Company’s TRSs may recognize taxable income in periods prior or subsequent to when it recognizes income for U.S. GAAP purposes. When this occurs, the TRSs pay or defer the tax liability and establish deferred tax assets or deferred tax liabilities, respectively, for U.S. GAAP purposes.
Deferred tax assets generally represent items that may be used as a tax deduction in a tax return in future years for which the Company has already recognized the tax benefit for U.S. GAAP purposes. The Company estimates, based on existence of sufficient evidence, the ability to realize the remainder of any deferred tax asset its TRSs recognize. Any adjustments to such estimates will be made in the period such determination is made. Deferred tax liabilities generally represent tax expense for which payment has been deferred or expense has already been taken as a deduction on the Company’s tax return but has not yet been recognized as an expense for U.S. GAAP purposes. The Company’s deferred tax assets and/or liabilities are generated solely by differences in GAAP net income (loss) and taxable income (loss) at our taxable subsidiaries. U.S. GAAP and tax differences in the REIT may create additional deferred tax assets and/or liabilities to the extent the Company does not distribute all of its taxable income.
The Company has elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Code and the corresponding provisions of state law. To qualify as a REIT, the Company must distribute at least 90% of its annual REIT taxable income to stockholders (not including taxable income retained in its taxable subsidiaries) within the time frame set forth in the tax Code and the Company must also meet certain other requirements. In addition, because certain activities, if performed by the Company, may cause the Company to earn income which is not qualifying for the REIT gross income tests, the Company has formed TRSs, as defined in the Code, to engage in such activities. These TRSs’ activities are subject to income taxes as well as any REIT taxable income not distributed to stockholders.
The Company assesses its tax positions for all open tax years and determines whether the Company has any material unrecognized liabilities in accordance with ASC 740, Income Taxes. The Company records these liabilities to the extent the Company deems them more likely than not to be incurred. The Company classifies interest and penalties on material uncertain tax positions as interest expense and operating expense, respectively, in its consolidated statements of comprehensive loss.
Expenses on the consolidated statements of comprehensive loss typically consist of management fees, servicing expenses generally related to the subservicing of MSR, compensation and benefits and other operating expenses. Prior to the termination of the Management Agreement on August 14, 2020, management fees were payable to PRCM Advisers under the agreement. The management fee was calculated based on the Company’s stockholders’ equity with certain adjustments outlined in the management agreement (see Note 21 - Related Party Transactions for further detail). Also prior to the termination of the Management Agreement, included in compensation and benefits and other operating expenses were direct and allocated costs incurred by PRCM Advisers on the Company’s behalf and reimbursed by the Company. Included in these reimbursed costs was (a) the Company’s allocable share of the compensation paid by PRCM Advisers to its personnel serving as the Company’s principal financial officer and general counsel and personnel employed by PRCM Advisers as in-house legal, tax, accounting, consulting, auditing, administrative, information technology, valuation, computer programming and development and back-office resources to the Company, (b) any amounts for personnel of PRCM Advisers’ affiliates arising under a shared facilities and services agreement, and (c) certain costs allocated to the Company by PRCM Advisers for data services and technology. Subsequent to the transition to self-management, the Company no longer pays a management fee to, or reimburses the expenses of, PRCM Advisers. Expenses for which the Company previously reimbursed PRCM Advisers are now borne directly by the Company. The Company is also now responsible for the cash compensation and employee benefits of the Company’s Chief Executive Officer, Chief Investment Officer and investment professionals, which were previously the responsibility of PRCM Advisers. Prior to the termination of the Management Agreement, the Company was only responsible for the equity compensation paid to such individuals.
Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Current period net unrealized gains and losses on AFS securities, excluding certain AFS securities for which we have elected the fair value option, are reported as components of accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income on the consolidated statements of stockholders’ equity and in the consolidated statements of comprehensive loss. Net unrealized gains and losses on securities held by our taxable subsidiaries that are reported in accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income are adjusted for the effects of taxation and may create deferred tax assets or liabilities.
Earnings Per Share
The Company’s common stock, par value and shares issued and outstanding, includes issued and unvested shares of restricted common stock, which have full rights to the common stock dividend declarations of the Company. Common shares underlying certain other equity-based awards granted by the Company are not included in common stock until the awards vest. If these awards have non-forfeitable dividend participation rights, they are considered participating securities in the calculations of basic and diluted earnings (loss) per share.
Basic earnings (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders, less income allocated to participating securities pursuant to the two-class method, by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings (loss) per share is computed by dividing basic net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period, further adjusted for the dilutive effect, if any, of share-based payment awards and the assumed conversion of convertible notes into common shares.
Unvested equity-based awards are included in the calculation of diluted earnings (loss) per share under either the two-class method or the treasury stock method, depending upon which method produces the more dilutive result. The two-class method is an earnings allocation formula under which earnings (loss) per share is calculated for common stock and participating securities according to dividends declared and participating rights in undistributed earnings. Under this method, all earnings (distributed and undistributed) are allocated between participating securities and common shares based on their respective rights to receive dividends or dividend equivalents. Under the treasury stock method, common equivalent shares are calculated assuming that any share-based payment awards vest according to their respective agreements and unrecognized compensation cost is used to repurchase shares of the Company’s outstanding common stock at the average market price during the reported period. Under the if-converted method, the assumed conversion of each convertible note into common shares is calculated by adding back the respective periodic interest expense (net of any tax effects) associated with dilutive convertible notes to net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders and adding the shares issued in an assumed conversion to the diluted weighted average share count.
Equity Incentive Plans
The Company’s Second Restated 2009 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2009 Plan, and the Company’s 2021 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2021 Plan, or collectively, the Equity Incentive Plans, provide incentive compensation to attract and retain qualified directors, officers, personnel and other parties who may provide significant services to the Company. The Equity Incentive Plans are administered by the compensation committee of the Company’s board of directors. The Equity Incentive Plans permit the grants of restricted common stock, restricted stock units, or RSUs, performance-based awards (including performance share units, or PSUs), phantom shares, dividend equivalent rights and other equity-based awards. See Note 17 - Equity Incentive Plans for further details regarding the Equity Incentive Plans.
Equity-based compensation costs are initially measured at the estimated fair value of the awards on the grant date. Valuation methods used and subsequent expense recognition is dependent upon each award’s service and performance conditions. The Company has elected not to estimate forfeitures when valuing equity-based awards and adjusts compensation costs as actual forfeitures occur. Compensation costs for equity-based awards subject only to service conditions are measured at the closing stock price on the grant date and are recognized as expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service periods for the awards, adjusted for any forfeitures. Compensation costs for equity-based awards subject to market-based performance metrics are measured at the grant date using Monte Carlo simulations which incorporate assumptions for stock return volatility, dividend yield and risk-free interest rates. These initial valuation amounts are recognized as expense over the requisite performance periods, subject to adjustments only for actual forfeitures. Amortization of equity-based awards (non-cash equity compensation expense) is included within compensation and benefits on the consolidated statements of comprehensive loss.
Recently Issued and/or Adopted Accounting Standards
Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting
The London Interbank Offered Rate, or LIBOR, has been used extensively in the U.S. and globally as a “benchmark” or “reference rate” for various commercial and financial contracts, including corporate and municipal bonds and loans, floating rate mortgages, asset-backed securities, consumer loans, and interest rate swaps and other derivatives. On March 5, 2021, Intercontinental Exchange Inc. announced that ICE Benchmark Administration Limited, the administrator of LIBOR, intends to stop publication of the majority of USD-LIBOR tenors on June 30, 2023. In the U.S., the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, or ARRC, has identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate, or SOFR, as its preferred alternative rate for U.S. dollar-based LIBOR. SOFR is a measure of the cost of borrowing cash overnight, collateralized by U.S. Treasury securities, and is based on directly observable U.S. Treasury-backed repurchase transactions. Numerous industry wide and company-specific transitions as it relates to derivatives and cash markets exposed to LIBOR are in process, if not completed.
In March 2020, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2020-04, which provides temporary optional expedients and exceptions on accounting for contract modifications and hedging relationships in anticipation of the replacement of LIBOR with another reference rate. The guidance also provides a one-time election to sell held-to-maturity debt securities or to transfer such securities to the available-for-sale or trading category. The majority of the Company’s material contracts that are or were indexed to USD-LIBOR have been amended to transition to an alternative benchmark, where necessary. As of December 31, 2022, only the Company’s term notes incorporate LIBOR as the referenced rate and mature after the phase-out of LIBOR. However, the related agreements have provisions in place that provide for an alternative to LIBOR upon its phase-out. The Company had no other financing arrangements or derivative instruments that incorporate LIBOR as the referenced rate as of December 31, 2022. Additionally, each series of the Company’s fixed-to-floating preferred stock that becomes redeemable at the time the stock begins to pay a LIBOR-based rate has existing LIBOR cessation fallback language. The ASU was effective immediately for all entities and expired after December 31, 2022. The Company’s adoption of this ASU did not have an impact on the Company’s financial condition, results of operations or financial statement disclosures.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef