Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2021
|Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
|Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
Consolidation and Basis of Presentation
The interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or U.S. GAAP, have been condensed or omitted according to such SEC rules and regulations. However, management believes that the disclosures included in these interim condensed consolidated financial statements are adequate to make the information presented not misleading.
The condensed consolidated financial statements of the Company include the accounts of all subsidiaries; inter-company accounts and transactions have been eliminated. All trust entities in which the Company holds investments that are considered variable interest entities, or VIEs, for financial reporting purposes were reviewed for consolidation under the applicable consolidation guidance. Whenever the Company has both the power to direct the activities of a trust that most significantly impact the entities’ performance, and the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits of the entities that could be significant, the Company consolidates the trust. Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020. In the opinion of management, all normal and recurring adjustments necessary to present fairly the financial condition of the Company at September 30, 2021 and results of operations for all periods presented have been made. The results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 should not be construed as indicative of the results to be expected for future periods or the full year.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make a number of significant estimates. These include estimates of fair value of certain assets and liabilities, amount and timing of credit losses, prepayment rates, and other estimates that affect the reported amounts of certain assets and liabilities as of the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of certain revenues and expenses during the reported period. It is likely that changes in these estimates (e.g., valuation changes due to supply and demand in the market, credit performance, prepayments, interest rates, or other reasons) will occur in the near term. The Company’s estimates are inherently subjective in nature and actual results could differ from its estimates and the differences may be material.
Significant Accounting Policies
Included in Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements of the Company’s 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K is a summary of the Company’s significant accounting policies. Provided below is a summary of additional accounting policies that are significant to the Company’s financial condition and results of operations for the nine months ended September 30, 2021.
Equity Incentive Plans
The Company’s Second Restated 2009 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2009 Plan, and the Company’s 2021 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2021 Plan, or collectively, the Equity Incentive Plans, provide incentive compensation to attract and retain qualified directors, officers, personnel and other parties who may provide significant services to the Company. The Equity Incentive Plans are administered by the compensation committee of the Company’s board of directors. The Equity Incentive Plans permit the grants of restricted common stock, restricted stock units, or RSUs, performance-based awards (including performance share units, or PSUs), phantom shares, dividend equivalent rights and other equity-based awards. See Note 17 - Equity Incentive Plans for further details regarding the Equity Incentive Plans.
Equity-based compensation costs are initially measured at the estimated fair value of the awards on the grant date. Valuation methods used and subsequent expense recognition is dependent upon each award’s service and performance conditions. The Company has elected not to estimate forfeitures when valuing equity-based awards and adjusts compensation costs as actual forfeitures occur. Compensation costs for equity-based awards subject only to service conditions are measured at the closing stock price on the grant date and are recognized as expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service periods for the awards, adjusted for any forfeitures. Compensation costs for equity-based awards subject to market-based performance metrics are measured at the grant date using Monte Carlo simulations which incorporate assumptions for stock return volatility, dividend yield and risk-free interest rates. These initial valuation amounts are recognized as expense over the requisite performance periods, subject to adjustments only for actual forfeitures. Amortization of equity-based awards (non-cash equity compensation expense) is included within compensation and benefits on the condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss).
Recently Issued and/or Adopted Accounting Standards
Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments
On January 1, 2020, the Company adopted ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which changed the impairment model for most financial assets and certain other instruments. Allowances for credit losses on AFS debt securities are recognized, rather than direct reductions in the amortized cost of the investments, regardless of whether the impairment is considered to be other-than-temporary. The new model also requires the estimation of lifetime expected credit losses and corresponding recognition of allowance for losses on trade and other receivables, held-to-maturity debt securities, loans, and other instruments held at amortized cost. The ASU requires certain recurring disclosures.
The Company uses a discounted cash flow method to estimate and recognize an allowance for credit losses on AFS securities. The estimated allowance for credit losses is equal to the difference between the prepayment adjusted contractual cash flows with no credit losses and the prepayment adjusted expected cash flows with credit losses, discounted at the effective interest rate on the AFS security that was in effect upon adoption of the standard. The contractual cash flows and expected cash flows are based on management’s best estimate and take into consideration current prepayment assumptions, lifetime expected losses based on past loss experience, current market conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts of future conditions. The allowance for credit losses causes an increase in the AFS security amortized cost and recognizes an allowance for credit losses in the same amount. The allowance for credit losses recognized in connection with adopting the guidance in Topic 326 on January 1, 2020 was equal to the present value of the credit reserve in place on December 31, 2019. As a result, no cumulative effect adjustment to opening cumulative earnings was required.
The adoption of this ASU impacts the Company’s accounting for the purchase of certain beneficial interests with purchased credit deterioration or when there is a “significant” difference between contractual cash flows and expected cash flows. For these securities, the Company records an allowance for credit losses with an increase in amortized cost above the purchase price of the same amount. Subsequent adverse or favorable changes in expected cash flows are recognized immediately in earnings as a provision for or reversal of provision for credit losses, respectively. Adverse changes are reflected as an increase to the allowance for credit losses and favorable changes are reflected as a decrease to the allowance for credit losses. The allowance for credit losses is limited to the difference between the beneficial interest’s fair value and its amortized cost, and any remaining adverse changes in these circumstances are reflected as a prospective adjustment to accretable yield. If the allowance for credit losses has been reduced to zero, the remaining favorable changes are reflected as a prospective adjustment to accretable yield. The Company does not adjust the effective interest rate in subsequent periods for prepayment assumption changes or variable-rate changes. Any changes in the allowance for credit losses due to the time-value-of-money are accounted for in the condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss) as provision for credit losses rather than a reduction to interest income. Any portion of the AFS securities that is deemed uncollectible results in a write-off of the uncollectible amortized cost with a corresponding reduction to the allowance for credit losses. Recoveries of amounts previously written off results in an increase to the allowance for credit losses.
The standard applies to Agency and non-Agency securities that are accounted for as beneficial interests under Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 325-40, Investments-Other: Beneficial Interests in Securitized Financial Assets, and ASC 310-30, Receivables: Loans and Debt Securities Acquired with Deteriorated Credit Quality, or ASC 310-30. Only beneficial interests that were previously accounted for as purchased credit impaired under ASC 310-30 were accounted for as purchased credit deteriorated under Topic 326 on the transition date.
Upon adoption of this ASU, the Company established an allowance for credit losses on AFS securities accounted for as purchased credit-impaired assets under ASC 310-30 in an unrealized loss position and with no other-than-temporary impairments, or OTTI, recognized in periods prior to transition. The effective interest rates on these debt securities remained unchanged. On January 1, 2020, the $30.7 billion net amortized cost basis of AFS securities was inclusive of a $244.9 million allowance for credit loss.
The Company used a prospective transition approach for debt securities for which OTTI had been recognized prior to January 1, 2020. As a result, the amortized cost basis remained the same before and after the effective date. The effective interest rate on these debt securities also remained unchanged. Amounts previously recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income as of January 1, 2020 relating to improvements in cash flows expected to be collected are accreted into income over the remaining life of the asset. Recoveries of amounts previously written off relating to improvements in cash flows after January 1, 2020 are recorded in earnings when received.
Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-04, which provides temporary optional expedients and exceptions on accounting for contract modifications and hedging relationships in anticipation of the replacement of the London Interbank Offered Rate, or LIBOR, with another reference rate. The guidance also provides a one-time election to sell held-to-maturity debt securities or to transfer such securities to the available-for-sale or trading category. The ASU was effective immediately for all entities and expires after December 31, 2022. The Company’s adoption of this ASU did not have an impact on the Company’s financial condition, results of operations or financial statement disclosures.
Issuer’s Accounting for Debt and Equity Instruments
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06 to simplify an issuer’s accounting for convertible instruments and its application of the derivatives scope exception for contracts in its own equity. Under the new guidance, only conversion features associated with a convertible debt instrument issued at a substantial premium and those that are considered embedded derivatives in accordance with derivatives guidance will be accounted for separate from the convertible instrument. Additionally, for contracts in an entity’s own equity, the new guidance eliminates some of the requirements for equity classification. The guidance also addresses how convertible instruments are accounted for in the diluted earnings per share calculation and requires enhanced disclosures about the terms of convertible instruments and contracts in an entity’s own equity. The ASU is effective for annual periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning on or after December 15, 2021, with early adoption permitted. The early adoption of the ASU’s guidance results in the Company accounting for a convertible debt instrument without separately presenting in stockholders’ equity an embedded conversion feature. The Company accounts for a convertible debt instrument wholly as debt unless (1) a convertible instrument contains features that require bifurcation as a derivative under ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging, or ASC 815, or (2) a convertible debt instrument was issued at a substantial premium. The Company’s early adoption of this ASU did not have an impact on the Company’s financial condition, results of operations or financial statement disclosures.