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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended: December 31, 2021
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number 001-34506
TWO HARBORS INVESTMENT CORP.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Maryland 27-0312904
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
1601 Utica Avenue South, Suite 900
St. Louis Park,Minnesota55416
(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)
(612) 453-4100
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class:Trading Symbol(s)Name of Exchange on Which Registered:
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareTWONew York Stock Exchange
8.125% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred StockTWO PRANew York Stock Exchange
7.625% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred StockTWO PRBNew York Stock Exchange
7.25% Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred StockTWO PRCNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No
As of June 30, 2021, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $2.1 billion based on the closing sale price as reported on the NYSE on that date.
As of February 24, 2022, there were 343,920,330 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, issued and outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for the 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission under Regulation 14A within 120 days after the end of registrant’s fiscal year covered by this Annual Report, are incorporated by reference into Part III.



TWO HARBORS INVESTMENT CORP.
2021 ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
PART I
PART II
PART III
PART IV

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PART I

Item 1. Business

Overview
Two Harbors Investment Corp. is a Maryland corporation focused on investing in, financing and managing Agency residential mortgage-backed securities, or Agency RMBS, mortgage servicing rights, or MSR, and other financial assets, which we collectively refer to as our target assets. We operate as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, as defined under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code. The terms “Two Harbors,” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “company” refer to Two Harbors Investment Corp. and its subsidiaries as a consolidated entity.
We were incorporated on May 21, 2009 and commenced operations as a publicly traded company on October 28, 2009, upon completion of a merger with Capitol Acquisition Corp., or Capitol, which became our wholly owned indirect subsidiary as a result of the merger. Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the symbol “TWO”.
Our objective is to provide attractive risk-adjusted total return to our stockholders over the long term, primarily through dividends and secondarily through capital appreciation. We acquire and manage an investment portfolio of our target assets, which include the following:
Agency RMBS, meaning RMBS whose principal and interest payments are guaranteed by a U.S. government agency, such as the Government National Mortgage Association (or Ginnie Mae), or a U.S. government sponsored enterprise, or GSE, such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (or Fannie Mae) or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (or Freddie Mac);
MSR; and
Other financial assets comprising approximately 5% to 10% of the portfolio.
We seek to deploy moderate leverage as part of our investment strategy. We generally finance our Agency RMBS securities through short- and long-term borrowings structured as repurchase agreements. We also finance our MSR through revolving credit facilities, term notes payable and convertible senior notes.
We have elected to be treated as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. To qualify as a REIT, we are required to meet certain investment and operating tests and annual distribution requirements. We generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxes on our taxable income to the extent that we annually distribute all of our net taxable income to stockholders, do not participate in prohibited transactions and maintain our intended qualification as a REIT. However, certain activities that we may perform may cause us to earn income which will not be qualifying income for REIT purposes. We have designated certain of our subsidiaries as taxable REIT subsidiaries, or TRSs, as defined in the Code, to engage in such activities, and we may form additional TRSs in the future. We also operate our business in a manner that will permit us to maintain our exemption from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, or the 1940 Act.
Through August 14, 2020, we were externally managed and advised by PRCM Advisers LLC, a subsidiary of Pine River Capital Management L.P., under the terms of a Management Agreement between us and PRCM Advisers. We terminated the Management Agreement effective August 14, 2020 for “cause” in accordance with Section 15(a) thereof. On August 15, 2020, we completed our transition to self-management and directly hired the senior management team and other personnel who had historically provided services to us. In connection with the termination of the Management Agreement, PRCM Advisers filed a complaint in federal court. Refer to Item 3, “Legal Proceedings” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.
Our team of investment professionals has broad experience in managing our target assets and has demonstrated the ability to generate attractive risk-adjusted returns under different market conditions and cycles. We have extensive long-term relationships with financial intermediaries, including prime brokers, investment banks, broker-dealers and asset custodians. We believe these relationships enhance our ability to source, finance, protect and hedge our investments and, thus, enable us to succeed in various credit and interest rate environments. We also benefit from our risk management, accounting, operations, legal, compliance and information technology teams.

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Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains, or incorporates by reference, not only historical information, but also forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act, and that are subject to the safe harbors created by such sections. Forward-looking statements involve numerous risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ from our beliefs, expectations, estimates, and projections and, consequently, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Forward-looking statements are not historical in nature and can be identified by words such as “anticipate,” “estimate,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “target,” “believe,” “intend,” “seek,” “plan,” “goals,” “future,” “likely,” “may,” and similar expressions or their negative forms, or by references to strategy, plans, or intentions. These forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, including, among other things, those described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K under the caption “Risk Factors.” Other risks, uncertainties, and factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected are described below and may be described from time to time in reports we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, including our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and we undertake no obligation to update or revise any such forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.
Important factors, among others, that may affect our actual results include:
changes in interest rates and the market value of our target assets;
changes in prepayment rates of mortgages underlying our target assets;
the state of the credit markets and other general economic conditions, particularly as they affect the price of earning assets, the credit status of borrowers and home prices;
the ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the actions taken by federal and state governmental authorities and GSEs in response, on the U.S. economy, financial markets and our target assets;
legislative and regulatory actions affecting our business;
the availability and cost of our target assets;
the availability and cost of financing for our target assets, including repurchase agreement financing, revolving credit facilities, term notes and convertible notes;
the impact of any increases in payment delinquencies and defaults on the mortgages comprising and underlying our target assets, including additional servicing costs and servicing advance obligations on the MSR assets we own;
changes in liquidity in the market for real estate securities, the re-pricing of credit risk in the capital markets, inaccurate ratings of securities by rating agencies, rating agency downgrades of securities, and increases in the supply of real estate securities available-for-sale;
changes in the values of securities we own and the impact of adjustments reflecting those changes on our consolidated statements of comprehensive (loss) income and balance sheets, including our stockholders’ equity;
our ability to generate cash flow from our target assets;
our ability to effectively execute and realize the benefits of strategic transactions and initiatives we have pursued or may in the future pursue;
our decision to terminate our Management Agreement with PRCM Advisers and the ongoing litigation with PRCM Advisers related to such termination;
changes in the competitive landscape within our industry, including changes that may affect our ability to attract and retain personnel;
our exposure to legal and regulatory claims, penalties or enforcement activities, including those related to the termination of our Management Agreement with PRCM Advisers and arising from our ownership and management of MSR and prior securitization transactions;
our exposure to counterparties involved in our MSR business and prior securitization transactions and our ability to enforce representations and warranties made by them;
our ability to acquire MSR and successfully operate our seller-servicer subsidiary and oversee the activities of our subservicers;
our ability to manage various operational and regulatory risks associated with our business;
interruptions in or impairments to our communications and information technology systems;
our ability to maintain appropriate internal controls over financial reporting;
our ability to establish, adjust and maintain appropriate hedges for the risks in our portfolio;
our ability to maintain our REIT qualification for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and
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limitations imposed on our business due to our REIT status and our status as exempt from registration under the 1940 Act.
This Annual Report on Form 10-K may contain statistics and other data that, in some cases, have been obtained or compiled from information made available by mortgage loan servicers and other third-party service providers.

Our Business
Our Investment Strategy
Our investment objective is to provide attractive risk-adjusted total return to our stockholders over the long-term, primarily through dividends and secondarily through capital appreciation. We intend to achieve this objective by constructing a well-balanced portfolio consisting of Agency RMBS, MSR and other financial assets, with a focus on managing various associated risks, including interest rate, prepayment, credit, mortgage spread and financing risk. The preservation of book value is of paramount importance to our ability to generate total return on an ongoing basis.
Our investment team makes investment decisions based on a rigorous asset selection process that takes into consideration a variety of factors, including expected cash yield, risk-adjusted returns, current and projected credit fundamentals, current and projected macroeconomic considerations, current and projected supply and demand, credit and market risk concentration limits, liquidity, cost of financing and financing availability. It is our intention to select our assets in such a way as to maintain our REIT qualification and our exemption from registration under the 1940 Act.
Our Target Assets
Our portfolio includes assets that are primarily sensitive to changes in interest rates, prepayments and mortgage spreads, including but not limited to Agency RMBS, MSR and related hedging transactions. These assets have minimal exposure to the underlying credit performance of the investments. Our portfolio is managed as a whole and our resources are allocated and financial performance is assessed on a consolidated basis. Our target asset classes are as follows:
Agency RMBSAgency RMBS collateralized by fixed rate mortgage loans, adjustable-rate mortgage (or ARM) loans or hybrid mortgage loans, or derivatives thereof, including:
mortgage pass-through certificates;
collateralized mortgage obligations;
uniform mortgage-backed securities;
Freddie Mac gold certificates;
Fannie Mae certificates;
Ginnie Mae certificates;
“to-be-announced” forward contracts, or TBAs, which are pools of mortgages with specific investment terms to be issued by Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac at a future date; and
interest-only and inverse interest-only securities.
MSRThe right to control the servicing of residential mortgage loans, receive the servicing income therefrom and the obligation to service the loans in accordance with relevant standards; the actual servicing functions are outsourced to appropriately licensed third-party subservicers, which service the loans in their own names.
Other assets may include financial and mortgage-related assets other than our target assets, including non-Agency securities (securities that are not issued or guaranteed by Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac) and certain non-hedging transactions that may produce non-qualifying income for purposes of the REIT gross income tests.
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Our Investment Activities
Historically, we viewed our target assets in two strategies that were based on our core competencies of understanding and managing prepayment and credit risk. Our rates strategy included assets that are primarily sensitive to changes in interest rates and prepayment speeds, specifically Agency RMBS and MSR. Our credit strategy included assets that were primarily sensitive to changes in inherent credit risk, including non-Agency securities. In the first quarter of 2020, we experienced unprecedented market conditions as a result of the global COVID-19 pandemic, including unusually significant spread widening in both Agency RMBS and non-Agency securities. In response, we focused our efforts on raising excess liquidity and de-risking our portfolio. On March 25, 2020, we sold substantially all of our non-Agency securities in order to eliminate the risks posed by continued margin calls and ongoing funding concerns associated with the significant spread widening on these assets. We also sold approximately one-third of our Agency RMBS in order to reduce risk and raise cash to establish a strong defensive liquidity position to weather potential ongoing economic and market instability. Late in the first quarter of 2020, the U.S. Federal Reserve, or the Fed, committed to unlimited purchases of Agency RMBS. The Fed’s actions were successful in helping to stabilize that market; however, the resulting historic spread tightening in the first half of 2021 made investments in Agency RMBS less attractive. As a result, and in anticipation of an accelerated tapering of Fed purchases, we reduced our aggregate Agency RMBS/TBA position during the year ended December 31, 2021. In the ordinary course of business, we make investment decisions and allocate capital in accordance with our views on the changing risk/reward dynamics in the market and in our portfolio. Going forward, we expect our capital to be fully allocated to our strategy of pairing Agency RMBS and MSR.
Our Agency RMBS portfolio is comprised primarily of fixed rate mortgage-backed securities backed by single-family and multi-family mortgage loans. All of our principal and interest Agency RMBS are Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac mortgage pass-through certificates or collateralized mortgage obligations that carry an implied rating of “AAA,” or Ginnie Mae mortgage pass-through certificates, which are backed by the guarantee of the U.S. government. The majority of these securities consist of whole pools in which we own all of the investment interests in the securities.
One of our wholly owned subsidiaries holds the requisite approvals from Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to own and manage MSR, which represent a contractual right to control the servicing of a mortgage loan, the obligation to service the loan in accordance with relevant standards and the right to collect a fee for the performance of servicing activities, such as collecting principal and interest from a borrower and distributing those payments to the owner of the loan. We do not directly service the mortgage loans underlying the MSR we acquire; rather, we contract with appropriately licensed third-party subservicers to handle substantially all servicing functions in the name of the subservicer for the loans underlying our MSR. As the servicer of record, however, we remain accountable to the GSEs for all servicing matters and, accordingly, provide substantial oversight of each of our subservicers. We believe MSR are a natural fit for our portfolio over the long term. Our MSR business leverages our core competencies in prepayment and credit risk analytics and the MSR assets provide offsetting risks to our Agency RMBS, hedging both interest rate and mortgage spread risk. 
In making our capital allocation decisions, we take into consideration a number of factors, including the opportunities available in the marketplace, the cost and availability of financing, and the cost of hedging interest rate, prepayment, credit and other portfolio risks. We have expertise in mortgage credit and may choose to invest again in those assets should the opportunity arise.
Our Investment Guidelines
Our board of directors has approved the following investment guidelines:
no investment shall be made that would cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes;
no investment shall be made that would cause us to be regulated as an investment company under the 1940 Act;
we will primarily invest within our target assets, consisting primarily of Agency RMBS, non-Agency securities, residential mortgage loans, MSR and certain types of commercial real estate assets; approximately 5% to 10% of our portfolio may include other financial assets; and
until appropriate investments can be identified, we will invest available cash in interest-bearing and short-term investments that are consistent with (i) our intention to qualify as a REIT and (ii) our exemption from investment company status under the 1940 Act.
These investment guidelines may be changed from time to time by our board of directors in its discretion without the approval of our stockholders.
Within the constraints of the foregoing investment guidelines, we have broad authority to select, finance and manage our investment portfolio. As a general matter, our investment strategy is designed to enable us to:
build an investment portfolio consisting of Agency RMBS, MSR and other financial assets that will generate attractive returns while having a moderate risk profile;
manage financing, interest, prepayment rate, credit and similar risks;
capitalize on discrepancies in the relative valuations in the mortgage and housing markets; and
provide regular quarterly dividend distributions to stockholders.
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Within the requirements of the investment guidelines, we make determinations as to the percentage of our assets that will be invested in each of our target assets. Our investment decisions depend on prevailing market conditions and may change over time in response to opportunities available in different interest rate, economic and credit environments. As a result, we cannot predict the percentage of our assets that will be invested in any of our target asset classes at any given time. We believe that the diversification of our portfolio of assets and the flexibility of our strategy, combined with the expertise of our investment team, will enable us to achieve attractive risk-adjusted total return under a variety of market conditions and economic cycles.
Financing Strategy
We deploy moderate leverage to fund the acquisition of our target assets and increase potential returns to our stockholders. We are not required to maintain any particular leverage ratio. The amount of leverage we deploy for particular investments in our target assets depends upon a variety of factors, including without limitation: general economic, political and financial market conditions; the anticipated liquidity and price volatility of our assets; the gap between the duration of assets and liabilities, including hedges; the availability and cost of financing our assets; our opinion of the credit worthiness of financing counterparties; the health of the U.S. residential mortgage and housing markets; our outlook for the level, slope and volatility of interest rates; the credit quality of the loans underlying our target assets; the rating assigned to securities; and our outlook for asset spreads relative to the London Interbank Offered Rate, or LIBOR, curve, the Secured Overnight Financing Rate, or SOFR, curve, the Overnight Index Swap Rate, or OIS, the U.S. federal funds rate, and other benchmark rate curves.
Our primary financing sources for Agency RMBS are repurchase agreements. Repurchase agreements are financings pursuant to which one party, the seller/borrower, sells assets to the repurchase agreement counterparty, the buyer/lender, for an agreed price with the obligation to repurchase the assets from the buyer at a future date and at a price different than the original purchase price, with the difference representing the borrowing rate (typically based on an index plus a spread consistent with those demanded in the market). The amount of financing available under a repurchase agreement is limited to a specified percentage of the estimated market value of the assets. The difference between the sale price and repurchase price is the interest expense of financing under a repurchase agreement. Under repurchase agreement financing arrangements, if the value of the collateral decreases, the buyer could require the seller to provide additional cash collateral to re-establish the ratio of value of the collateral to the amount of borrowing (i.e., a margin call). In the current economic climate, lenders under repurchase agreements generally advance approximately 90% to 97% of the market value of the Agency RMBS financed (a discount from market value, generally referred to as a haircut, of 3% to 10%).
To finance MSR assets and related servicing advance obligations, we may enter into repurchase agreements, revolving credit facilities and securitization transactions collateralized by the value of the MSR and/or servicing advances pledged and with borrowing rates typically based on an index plus a spread consistent with those demanded in the market. If the value of our MSR and/or servicing advances pledged as collateral for the agreements decreases, the respective lender could require us to provide additional collateral or cash as collateral to re-establish the ratio of value of the collateral to the amount of the debt outstanding. Due to certain GSE requirements, we may be restricted as to the frequency in which we are able to pledge additional MSR and/or servicing advance collateral to counterparties. As a result, we may choose to over-collateralize certain financing arrangements in order to avoid having to provide cash as additional collateral. Lenders generally advance approximately 65% to 70% of the market value of the MSR financed (i.e., a haircut of 30% to 35%) and 80% to 95% of the value of servicing advances financed (i.e., a haircut of 5% to 20%), depending on the type of advance (corporate, escrow, etc.).
During the year ended December 31, 2019, we formed a trust entity, or the MSR Issuer Trust, for the purpose of financing MSR through securitization. On June 27, 2019, we, through the MSR Issuer Trust, completed an MSR securitization transaction pursuant to which, through two of our wholly owned subsidiaries, MSR is pledged to the MSR Issuer Trust and in return, the MSR Issuer Trust issued (i) an aggregate principal amount of $400.0 million in term notes to qualified institutional buyers and (ii) a variable funding note, or VFN, with a maximum principal balance of $1.0 billion to one of the subsidiaries, in each case secured on a pari passu basis. The term notes bear interest at a rate equal to one-month LIBOR plus 2.80% per annum. The term notes will mature on June 25, 2024 or, if extended pursuant to the terms of the related indenture supplement, June 25, 2026 (unless earlier redeemed in accordance with their terms). In connection with the transaction, we also entered into a repurchase facility that is secured by the VFN issued in connection with the MSR securitization transaction, which is collateralized by our MSR.
A significant decrease in the advance rate or an increase in the haircut could result in us having to sell assets in order to meet additional margin requirements by the lender. We expect to mitigate our risk of margin calls under financing arrangements by deploying leverage at an amount that is below what could be used under current advance rates.
In order to reduce our exposure to risks associated with lender counterparty concentration, we generally seek to diversify our exposure by entering into repurchase agreements with multiple counterparties. At December 31, 2021, we had $7.7 billion of outstanding balances under repurchase agreements with 20 counterparties, with a maximum net exposure (the difference between the amount loaned to us, including interest payable, and the value of the assets pledged by us as collateral, including accrued interest receivable on such assets) to any single lender of $354.0 million, or 12.9% of stockholders’ equity.
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Interest Rate Hedging and Risk Management Strategy
We may enter into a variety of derivative and non-derivative instruments to economically hedge interest rate risk or “duration mismatch (or gap)” by adjusting the duration of our floating-rate borrowings into fixed-rate borrowings to more closely match the duration of our assets. This particularly applies to borrowing agreements with maturities or interest rate resets of less than six months. Typically, the interest receivable terms (i.e., LIBOR, OIS or SOFR) of certain derivatives match the terms of the underlying debt, resulting in an effective conversion of the rate of the related borrowing agreement from floating to fixed. The objective is to manage the cash flows associated with current and anticipated interest payments on borrowings, as well as the ability to roll or refinance borrowings at the desired amount by adjusting the duration. To help manage the adverse impact of interest rate changes on the value of our portfolio as well as our cash flows, we may, at times, enter into various forward contracts, including short securities, TBAs, options, futures, swaps, caps, credit default swaps and total return swaps. In executing on our current interest rate risk management strategy, we have entered into TBAs, put and call options for TBAs, interest rate swap and swaption agreements and U.S. Treasury and Eurodollar futures. In addition, because MSR are negative duration assets, they provide a hedge to interest rate exposure on our Agency RMBS portfolio. In hedging interest rate risk, we seek to reduce the risk of losses on the value of our investments that may result from changes in interest rates in the broader markets, improve risk-adjusted returns and, where possible, obtain a favorable spread between the yield on our assets and the cost of our financing.
Human Capital
We believe that our people are the foundation of our success. We are committed to attracting and retaining the industry’s top talent by providing competitive wages and benefits and cultivating a workplace environment in which all of our employees can thrive and contribute. As of December 31, 2021, we had 105 full time equivalent employees based out of our two office locations in Minneapolis, Minnesota and New York, New York.
Compensation and Benefits. We use market data to benchmark and guide our compensation practices to ensure that our compensation program is competitive and rewarding, while at the same time aligning the interests of our employees with those of our stockholders. In addition to competitive wages and salaries, our compensation programs include cash bonus and equity incentive compensation opportunities, a 401(k) plan and profit sharing contribution, employer-paid health benefits, health savings and dependent care flexible spending accounts, generous paid time off, short- and long-term disability insurance, a variety of personal and family leave options, life-planning financial and legal resources, and other voluntary supplemental benefits.
Professional Development. We encourage the professional development of our people through regular leadership development training, talent management, and tuition reimbursement programs. We also offer a wide variety of educational opportunities through our educational platforms, Two Harbors University and a learning management system. We encourage collaboration and teamwork to ensure mutual understanding of responsibilities, priorities and expectations. We thoughtfully plan for our collective success by aligning individual employee and company goals.
Health, Safety and Well-being. We sponsor a number of programs and events that emphasize the health and well-being of our employees, including relational, financial, emotional and physical. We promote a culture of health and well-being through employee assistance program services, comprehensive health care benefits and resources for preventative health, such as flu shot clinics and reduced-fee health club memberships. Throughout the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have put the health and safety of our employees and their families first, initially supporting comprehensive work-from-home policies and subsequently implementing a work-life integration and flexibility policy after our return to the office in-person. In addition, we established enhanced safety measures and precautions in both of our offices as recommended by the federal, state and our local agencies.
Workplace Culture. We strive to foster a workplace culture where every individual on our team brings their unique perspectives, abilities and experiences which contribute to driving our organizational value. We are committed to supporting the engagement and leadership of women (who comprise 50% of our senior management team and approximately 40% of our workforce) and providing opportunities for collaboration, development and career growth. We conduct an annual pulse survey which provides valuable insights from employees on topics involving culture, diversity and inclusion, education, benefits and engagement, and pride ourselves on having a strong participation rate. We also offer a flexible work environment, providing employees the opportunity to balance their professional obligations with that of their personal.
Charitable Partnerships. We are committed to strengthening our local communities through the support of charitable organizations allied with the housing sector, and in particular those that provide housing support to families and children in need. Examples of our support include partnerships with AEON, Simpson Housing and Habitat for Humanity. In addition, we match dollar-for-dollar the cash donations made by our employees to our charitable partnerships.
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Operating and Regulatory Structure
Our business is subject to extensive regulation by U.S. federal and state governmental authorities, and self-regulatory organizations. We are required to comply with numerous federal and state laws, including those described below. The laws, rules and regulations comprising this regulatory framework change frequently, as can the interpretation and enforcement of existing laws, rules and regulations. Some of the laws, rules and regulations to which we are subject are intended primarily to safeguard and protect consumers, rather than stockholders or creditors. From time to time, we may receive requests from U.S. federal and state agencies for records, documents and information regarding our policies, procedures and practices regarding our business activities. We incur significant ongoing costs to comply with these regulations.
REIT Qualification
We elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Code, commencing with our taxable period ended December 31, 2009. Our qualification as a REIT depends upon our ability to meet on a continuing basis, through actual investment and operating results, various complex requirements under the Code relating to, among other things, the sources of our gross income, the composition and value of our assets, our distribution levels and the diversity of ownership of our shares. We believe that we are organized in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code, and we conduct our operations in a manner which will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT. Certain activities that we may perform may cause us to earn income that will not be qualifying income for REIT purposes. We have designated certain of our subsidiaries as TRSs to engage in such activities, and we may in the future form additional TRSs.
As long as we continue to qualify as a REIT, we generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the REIT taxable income we distribute currently to our stockholders. If we fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year and do not qualify for certain statutory relief provisions, we will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at regular corporate rates and may be precluded from qualifying as a REIT for the subsequent four taxable years following the year during which we lost our REIT qualification. Even if we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we may be subject to certain U.S. federal, state and local taxes on our income or property.
Investment Company Act of 1940
We conduct our operations so that we are not required to register as an investment company under the 1940 Act. If we were to fall within the definition of an investment company, we would be unable to conduct our business as described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Section 3(a)(1)(A) of the 1940 Act defines an investment company as any issuer that “is or holds itself out as being engaged primarily in the business of investing, reinvesting or trading in securities.” Section 3(a)(1)(C) of the 1940 Act also defines an investment company as any issuer that “is engaged or proposes to engage in the business of investing, reinvesting, owning, holding or trading in securities and owns or proposes to acquire investment securities having a value exceeding 40% of the value of the issuer’s total assets (exclusive of U.S. government securities and cash items) on an unconsolidated basis.” Excluded from the term “investment securities,” among other things, are U.S. government securities and securities issued by majority-owned subsidiaries that are not themselves investment companies and are not relying on the exclusion from the definition of investment company set forth in Section 3(c)(1) or Section 3(c)(7) of the 1940 Act.
We are organized as a holding company that conducts business primarily through our subsidiaries. Any business conducted through our subsidiaries will be conducted in such a manner as to ensure that we do not meet the definition of “investment company” because less than 40% of the value of our total assets on an unconsolidated basis would consist of “investment securities.”
To avoid registration as an investment company, certain of our subsidiaries rely on certain exemptions from the 1940 Act, including Section 3(c)(5)(C), which exempts entities that are “primarily engaged in the business of purchasing or otherwise acquiring mortgages and other liens on and interests in real estate.” Under the SEC staff’s current guidance, to qualify for this exemption, we must maintain (i) at least 55% of our assets in qualifying interests (referred to as the 55% Test) and (ii) at least 80% of our assets in qualifying interest plus other real estate related assets (referred to as the 80% Test). Qualifying interests for this purpose include mortgage loans and other assets, such as whole pool Agency and non-Agency RMBS, which are considered the functional equivalent of mortgage loans for the purposes of the 1940 Act. We expect each of our subsidiaries that may rely on Section 3(c)(5)(C) to invest at least 55% of its assets in qualifying interests in accordance with SEC staff guidance, and an additional 25% of its assets in either qualifying interests or other types of real estate related assets that do not constitute qualifying interests. We believe that we conduct our business so that we are exempt from the 1940 Act under Section 3(c)(5)(C), but rapid changes in the values of our assets could disrupt prior efforts to conduct our business to meet the 55% Test and the 80% Test. Our efforts to comply with the 55% Test and the 80% Test could require us to acquire or dispose of certain assets at unfavorable prices and limit our ability to pursue certain investment opportunities.
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Mortgage Industry Regulation
Although we do not originate or service residential mortgage loans, we must comply with various federal and state laws, rules and regulations as a result of owning MSR. These rules generally focus on consumer protection and include, among others, rules promulgated under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, or the Dodd-Frank Act, and the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Modernization Act of 1999, or the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. We are also required to maintain qualifications, registrations and licenses in certain states in order to own certain of our assets. These requirements can and do change as statutes and regulations are enacted, promulgated or amended, or as regulatory guidance or interpretations evolve or change, and the trend in recent years among federal and state lawmakers and regulators has been toward increasing laws, regulations and investigative proceedings in relation to the mortgage industry generally.
The Dodd-Frank Act significantly changed the regulation of financial institutions and the financial services industry, including the mortgage industry. The Dodd-Frank Act tasked many agencies with issuing a variety of new regulations, including rules related to mortgage origination, mortgage servicing, securitization transactions and derivatives. The Dodd-Frank Act also created the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, or the CFPB, which has broad rulemaking authority with respect to many of the federal consumer protection laws applicable to the mortgage industry. In addition to its rulemaking authority, the CFPB has supervision, examination and enforcement authority over consumer financial products and services by certain non-depository institutions, including our company. The CFPB has issued a series of rules and related guidance as part of ongoing efforts to enhance consumer protections and create uniform standards for the mortgage lending and servicing industries. These rules include requirements addressing how lenders must evaluate a consumer’s ability to repay a mortgage loan, specific disclosures and communications that must be made to consumers at various stages in the mortgage lending and servicing processes, and specific actions servicers must take at various stages in a loan’s life cycle, including providing assistance to consumers who encounter financial hardship and struggle to make their mortgage payment. These rules have led to increased costs to originate and service loans across the mortgage industry, greater regulatory scrutiny of originators, servicers and other mortgage industry participants from federal and state regulators and increased litigation and complaints against these participants from both consumers and government officials.
The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act imposes obligations on us to safeguard the information we maintain on mortgage loan borrowers and imposes restrictions on our ability to share that information with third parties and affiliates. In addition, a growing number of states have passed or enhanced laws to further protect borrower information, including laws that regulate the use and storage of personally identifiable information, require notifications to borrowers if the security of their personal information is breached, or require us to encrypt personal information when it is transmitted and stored electronically. These evolving federal and state laws require the ongoing review of our operations, increase our compliance costs, and affect our ability to use and share information with third parties as part of our business.
The Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act, or the CARES Act, has provided billions of dollars of relief to individuals, businesses, state and local governments, and the health care system suffering the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, including mortgage loan forbearance and modification programs to qualifying borrowers who have difficulty making their loan payments. The CARES Act provides up to 360 days of forbearance relief from mortgage loan payments for borrowers with federally backed (e.g., Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac) mortgages who experience financial hardship related to the pandemic. Additionally, foreclosure moratorium and forbearance periods were extended for borrowers with Fannie Mae- or Freddie Mac-backed mortgages by the Federal Housing Finance Agency, or FHFA, as well as for borrowers with Federal Housing Administration, U.S. Department of Agriculture or U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs mortgages. The CARES Act and related federal and state regulation impact MSR owners, like us, that are required for certain MSR assets to advance principal, interest, taxes and insurance payments during all or some of the time when borrowers are in forbearance or while foreclosure moratorium is in effect and to adhere to additional servicing requirements designed to assist impacted borrowers, including, but not limited to, additional borrower outreach, adjusting credit reporting protocols for loans in forbearance, suspending late fees and ceasing foreclosure and eviction activity. A significant number of borrowers, who were previously eligible for forbearance plan extensions, have reached or are reaching their terminal forbearance plan expiration. This has led to improvement in actual and projected forbearance rates; however, over time, delinquencies and defaults in our MSR portfolio could increase if borrowers who were in forbearance are unable to resume making their monthly mortgage payments.
We have implemented and will continue to implement policies and procedures in order to ensure ongoing compliance with the laws, rules and regulations applicable to our business. We have incurred and expect to incur ongoing operational costs to comply with such laws, rules and regulations.
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Competition
Our comprehensive income depends, in large part, on our ability to acquire assets at favorable spreads over our borrowing costs. In acquiring our target assets, we compete with other REITs, specialty finance companies, savings and loan associations, banks, mortgage bankers, insurance companies, mutual funds, institutional investors, investment banking firms, financial institutions, governmental agencies, mortgage loan servicers, asset management firms and other entities. Some of these entities may not be subject to the same regulatory constraints that we are (e.g., REIT compliance or maintaining an exemption under the 1940 Act). Many of our competitors are significantly larger than us, have access to greater capital and other resources and may have other advantages over us. In addition, some of our competitors may have higher risk tolerances or different risk assessments, which could allow them to consider a wider variety of investments and establish different counterparty relationships than us. Further, we may from time to time face competition from government agencies, such as the Federal Reserve, in connection with initiatives designed to stimulate the U.S. economy or the mortgage market. Market conditions may from time to time attract more competitors for certain of our target assets, which will not only affect the supply of assets but may also increase the competition for sources of financing for these assets. An increase in the competition for sources of funding could adversely affect the availability and cost of financing, and thereby adversely affect our financial results.
Available Information
Our website can be found at www.twoharborsinvestment.com. We make available, free of charge on our website, our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports, as are filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, as well as our proxy statement with respect to our annual meeting of stockholders, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. Our Exchange Act reports filed with, or furnished to, the SEC are also available at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. The content of any website referred to in this Annual Report on Form 10-K is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K unless expressly noted.
We also make available, free of charge, the charters for our Audit Committee, Compensation Committee, Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee and Risk Oversight Committee, as well as our Corporate Governance Guidelines, Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, Whistleblowing Procedures and Stockholder Communications Policy. Within the time period required by the SEC and the NYSE, we will post on our website any amendment to the Code of Ethics and any waiver applicable to any executive officer, director or senior officer (as defined in the Code of Ethics).
Our Investor Relations Department can be contacted at:
Two Harbors Investment Corp.
Attn: Investor Relations
1601 Utica Ave. S., Suite 900
St. Louis Park, MN 55416
(612) 453-4100
investors@twoharborsinvestment.com

Item 1A. Risk Factors
The following is a summary of the significant risk factors known to us that we believe could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition to understanding the key risks described below, investors should understand that it is not possible to predict or identify all risk factors and, consequently, the following is not a complete discussion of all potential risks or uncertainties.
Risks Related to Our Business and Operations
Difficult conditions in the residential mortgage and real estate markets, the financial markets and the economy generally may adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our results of operations are materially affected by conditions in the residential mortgage and real estate markets, the financial markets and the economy generally. In past years, concerns about the COVID-19 pandemic, unemployment, the availability and cost of credit, rising government debt levels, inflation, energy costs, global supply chain disruptions, climate change, global economic lethargy, geopolitical unrest across various regions worldwide, European sovereign debt issues, U.S. budget debates, federal government shutdowns and international trade disputes, have from time to time contributed to increased volatility and uncertainty in the economy and financial markets. Adverse developments with respect to any of these market conditions may have an impact on new demand for homes, which may compress home ownership rates and weigh heavily on future home price performance. There is a strong correlation between home price growth rates (or losses) and mortgage loan delinquencies. Any stagnation in or deterioration of the residential mortgage or real estate markets may limit our ability to acquire our target assets on attractive terms or cause us to experience losses related to our assets.
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The COVID-19 pandemic and government actions to mitigate its spread and economic impact could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant disruptions to the U.S. and global economies and has contributed to volatility and negative pressure in financial markets. The impact of the pandemic and measures by governments and other authorities around the world to prevent its spread have negatively impacted and could further negatively impact our business. In March 2020, we sold substantially all of our non-Agency securities and approximately one-third of our Agency RMBS in order to reduce risk and raise cash to establish a strong defensive liquidity position to weather pandemic-driven economic and market instability. In addition, the economic impacts of the pandemic resulted in elevated delinquency levels among mortgage loan borrowers during 2020. While financial markets and mortgage delinquency levels have largely recovered to pre-pandemic levels, the losses incurred in connection with our non-Agency portfolio in 2020 are expected to have a long-term impact on our book value. It is possible that, in the event pandemic conditions worsen, mortgage loan borrower delinquency levels could again rise, adversely impacting the value of our RMBS and MSR assets and increasing the cost to service our MSR assets.
In response to the pandemic, the U.S. government has taken various actions to support the economy and the continued functioning of the financial markets. In 2020, the Federal Reserve committed to purchase unlimited amounts of U.S. Treasuries and Agency RMBS. The Federal Reserve’s actions were successful in stabilizing the Agency RMBS market; however, the resulting historic spread tightening in the first half of 2021 made investments in Agency RMBS less attractive. As a result, and in anticipation of an accelerated tapering of purchases by the Federal Reserve, we reduced our aggregate Agency RMBS/TBA position during the year. The Federal Reserve has since announced and initiated the tapering of its asset purchases, which are expected to cease by March 2022. Given the scale of the Federal Reserve’s asset purchases, the effects of its involvement in the Agency mortgage market, including the reduction in the asset purchases, reinvestment rate or outright sales, may be difficult to predict and could adversely affect our financial position.
In addition, the CARES Act provided billions of dollars of relief to individuals, businesses, state and local governments, and the health care system suffering the impact of the pandemic, including mortgage loan forbearance and modification programs to qualifying borrowers who have difficulty making their loan payments. The CARES Act and other executive, legislative and regulatory actions taken in response to the pandemic have created new and complex servicing compliance obligations impacting both our business and the businesses of our subservicers. There can be no assurance as to how, in the long term, these or any future actions by the U.S. government will affect our business or the efficiency, liquidity and stability of the financial and mortgage markets.
Our business model depends in part upon the continuing viability of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, or similar institutions, and any changes to their structure or creditworthiness could have an adverse impact on us.
We purchase Agency RMBS that are protected from the risk of default on the underlying mortgages by guarantees from Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or, in the case of Ginnie Mae securities, the U.S. government. In 2008, the U.S. government and U.S. Treasury undertook a series of actions designed to stabilize these GSEs, including placing them into a federal conservatorship. In December 2009, the U.S. government committed virtually unlimited capital to ensure the continued existence of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. There is no assurance that such capital will continue to be available or that the GSEs will honor their guarantees or other obligations. If these GSEs fail to honor their guarantees, the value of any Agency RMBS guaranteed by the GSEs that we hold would decline.
The continued flow of residential mortgage-backed securities from the GSEs is essential to the operation of the mortgage markets in their current form, and crucial to our business model. A number of legislative proposals have been introduced in recent years that would phase out or reform the GSEs. It is not possible to predict the scope and nature of the actions that the U.S. government will ultimately take with respect to the GSEs. Although any phase out or reform would likely take several years to implement, if the structure of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac were altered, or if they were eliminated altogether, the amount and type of Agency RMBS and other mortgage-related assets available for investment would be significantly affected. A reduction in supply of Agency RMBS and other mortgage-related assets would result in increased competition for those assets and likely lead to a significant increase in the price for our target assets. Additionally, market uncertainty with respect to the treatment of the GSEs could have the effect of reducing the actual or perceived quality of, and therefore the market value for, the Agency RMBS that we currently hold in our portfolio.
We operate in a highly regulated environment and may be adversely affected by changes in federal and state laws and regulations.
We operate in a highly regulated environment and are subject to the rules, regulations, approvals, licensing, reporting and examination requirements of various federal, state and local authorities. Any change in applicable federal, state or local laws, rules and regulations, or the interpretation or enforcement thereof, could have a substantial impact on our assets, operating expenses, business strategies and results of operations. Our inability or failure to comply with the rules, regulations or reporting requirements, to obtain or maintain approvals and licenses applicable to our businesses, or to satisfy annual or periodic examinations may impact our ability to do business and expose us to fines, penalties or other claims and, as a result, could harm our business.
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Federal and state regulation of the mortgage industry is complex and constantly evolving, and any further changes to applicable laws and regulations, including those adopted in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, may adversely impact our business.
Although we do not originate or service residential mortgage loans, we must comply with various federal and state laws, rules and regulations as a result of owning MSR. These rules include, among others, the Dodd-Frank Act, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and the CARES Act. We are also required to maintain qualifications, registrations and licenses in certain states in order to own certain of our assets. These requirements can and do change as statutes and regulations are enacted, promulgated or amended, or as regulatory guidance or interpretations evolve or change.
The Dodd-Frank Act and its implementing regulations, as well as other federal and state rules and regulations that govern mortgage servicing, combine to create a complex and constantly evolving regulatory environment, and the failure by us, or our subservicers, to comply with these requirements may result in fines or the suspension or revocation of the qualifications, registrations and licenses necessary to operate as an owner of MSR. New or modified regulations at the federal or state level to address concerns on a variety of fronts, including impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic, fair and equitable access to housing and data privacy and security concerns, could increase our operational expenses or otherwise enhance regulatory supervision and enforcement efforts. Ongoing efforts to enhance cooperation between federal and state regulators could also contribute to increased industry scrutiny.
We expect to continue to incur the operational and system costs necessary to maintain processes to ensure our compliance with applicable rules and regulations as well as to monitor compliance by our business partners. Additional rules and regulations implemented by the CFPB and state regulators, as well as any changes to existing rules, could lead to changes in the way we conduct our business and increased costs of compliance.
We operate in a highly competitive market and we may not be able to compete successfully.
We operate in a highly competitive market. Our profitability depends, in large part, on our ability to acquire a sufficient supply of our target assets at favorable prices. In acquiring assets, we compete with a variety of investors, including other mortgage REITs, specialty finance companies, public and private investment funds, asset managers, commercial and investment banks, broker-dealers, commercial finance and insurance companies, the GSEs, mortgage servicers and other financial institutions. In addition, the Federal Reserve has in the past committed to purchase unlimited amounts of Agency RMBS and other assets in order to stabilize the financial markets. Many of our competitors are substantially larger and may have greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources than we do. Competition for our target assets may lead to the price of such assets increasing and their availability decreasing, which may limit our ability to generate desired returns, reduce our earnings and, in turn, decrease the cash available for distribution to our stockholders.
Our executive officers and other key employees are critical to our success and the loss of any executive officer or key employee may materially adversely affect our business.
We operate in a highly specialized industry and our success is dependent upon the efforts, experience, diligence, skill, and deep knowledge of our business and historical operations of our executive officers and key employees, as well as their industry knowledge and relationships. The departure of any of our executive officers and/or key employees could have a material adverse effect on our operations and performance.
We may change any of our strategies, policies or procedures without stockholder consent.
We may change any of our strategies, policies or procedures with respect to investments, asset allocation, growth, operations, indebtedness, financing strategy and distributions at any time without the consent of stockholders. Changes in strategy could also result in the elimination of certain investments and business activities that we no longer view as attractive or in alignment with our business model. Shifts in strategy may increase our exposure to credit risk, interest rate risk, financing risk, default risk, regulatory risk and real estate market fluctuations. We also cannot assure you that we will be able to effectively execute on or realize the potential benefits of changes in strategy. Any such changes could adversely affect our financial condition, risk profile, results of operations, the market price of our common stock and our ability to make distributions to stockholders.
Our risk management policies and procedures may not be effective.
We have established and maintain risk management policies and procedures designed to identify, monitor and mitigate financial risks, such as credit risk, interest rate risk, prepayment risk and liquidity risk, as well as operational and compliance risks related to our business, assets and liabilities. These policies and procedures may not sufficiently identify all of the risks to which we are or may become exposed or mitigate the risks we have identified. Any expansion of our business activities may result in our being exposed to risks to which we have not previously been exposed or may increase our exposure to certain types of risks. Alternatively, any narrowing of our business activities may increase the concentration of our exposure to certain types of risk. Any failure to effectively identify and mitigate the risks to which we are exposed could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
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Maintaining our exemptions from registration as an investment company under the 1940 Act imposes limits on our operations.
We intend to conduct our operations so as not to become required to register as an investment company under the 1940 Act. Section 3(a)(1)(A) of the 1940 Act defines an investment company as any issuer that is or holds itself out as being engaged primarily in the business of investing, reinvesting or trading in securities. We are organized as a holding company that conducts its businesses primarily through our subsidiaries. We intend to conduct the operations of Two Harbors and its subsidiaries so that they do not come within the definition of an investment company, either because less than 40% of the value of their total assets on an unconsolidated basis will consist of “investment securities” or because they meet certain other exceptions or exemptions set forth in the 1940 Act based on the nature of their business purpose and activities.
Certain of our subsidiaries may rely upon the exemption set forth in Section 3(c)(5)(C) of the 1940 Act, which is available for entities “primarily engaged in the business of purchasing or otherwise acquiring mortgages and other liens on and interests in real estate.” This exemption generally means that at least 55% of each such subsidiary’s portfolio must be comprised of qualifying assets and at least 80% of its portfolio must be comprised of qualifying assets and real estate-related assets under the 1940 Act. Qualifying assets for this purpose include mortgage loans and other assets, such as whole pool Agency and non-Agency RMBS, which are considered the functional equivalent of mortgage loans for the purposes of the 1940 Act. We expect each of our subsidiaries relying on Section 3(c)(5)(C) to invest at least 55% of its assets in whole pool Agency RMBS and other interests in real estate that constitute qualifying assets in accordance with SEC staff guidance and an additional 25% of its assets in either qualifying assets and other types of real estate related assets that do not constitute qualifying assets.
As a result of the foregoing restrictions, we are limited in our ability to make or dispose of certain investments. To the extent the SEC publishes new or different guidance with respect to these matters, we may be required to adjust our strategy accordingly. Although we monitor the portfolios of our subsidiaries that may rely on the Section 3(c)(5)(C) exemption periodically, there can be no assurance that such subsidiaries will be able to maintain this exemption.
Loss of our 1940 Act exemptions would adversely affect us, the market price of shares of our common stock and our ability to distribute dividends, and could result in the termination of certain of our financing or other agreements.
As described above, we intend to conduct operations so that we are not required to register as an investment company under the 1940 Act. Although we monitor our portfolio and our activities periodically, there can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain our exemption from investment company registration under the 1940 Act. Furthermore, any modifications to the 1940 Act exemption rules or interpretations may require us to change our business and operations in order for us to continue to rely on such exemption. If we were no longer able to qualify for exemptions from registration under the 1940 Act, we could be required to restructure our activities or the activities of our subsidiaries, including effecting sales of assets in a manner that, or at a time when, we would not otherwise choose, which could negatively affect the value of our common stock, the sustainability of our business model, and our ability to make distributions. Such sales could occur during adverse market conditions, and we could be forced to accept prices below that which we believe are appropriate. The loss of our 1940 Act exemptions may also result in a default under or permit certain of our counterparties to terminate the many repurchase agreements, financing facilities or other agreements we have in place.
The lack of liquidity of our assets may adversely affect our business, including our ability to value, finance and sell our assets.
We have and may in the future acquire assets or other instruments with limited or no liquidity, including securities, MSR and other instruments that are not publicly traded. Market conditions could also significantly and negatively affect the liquidity of our assets. It may be difficult or impossible to obtain third-party pricing on such illiquid assets and validating third-party pricing for illiquid assets may be more subjective than more liquid assets. Illiquid assets typically experience greater price volatility, as a ready market may not exist for such assets, and such assets can be more difficult to value.
Any illiquidity in our assets may make it difficult for us to sell such assets if the need or desire arises. The ability to quickly sell certain of our target assets, such as certain securities and MSR, may be constrained by a number of factors, including a small number of willing buyers, lack of transparency as to current market terms and price, and time delays resulting from the buyer’s desire to conduct due diligence on the assets, negotiation of a purchase and sale agreement, compliance with any applicable contractual or regulatory requirements, and for certain assets like MSR, operational and compliance considerations. Consequently, even if we identify a buyer for certain of our securities and MSR, there is no assurance that we would be able to sell such assets in a timely manner if the need or desire arises.
Assets that are illiquid are typically more difficult and costly to finance. As a result, we may be required to finance the assets at unattractive rates or hold them on our balance sheet without the use of leverage. Assets tend to become less liquid during times of financial stress, which is often the time that liquidity is most needed. To the extent that we use leverage to finance assets that later become illiquid, we may lose that leverage if the financing counterparty determines that the collateral is no longer sufficient to secure the financing, or the counterparty could reduce the amount of money that it is willing to lend against the asset.
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We use leverage in executing our business strategy, which may adversely affect the return on our assets and may reduce cash available for distribution to our stockholders, as well as increase losses when economic conditions are unfavorable.
We use leverage to finance many of our investments and to enhance our financial returns. Through the use of leverage, we may acquire positions with market exposure significantly greater than the amount of capital committed to the transaction. It is not uncommon for investors in Agency RMBS to obtain leverage equal to ten or more times equity through the use of repurchase agreement financing. Subject to market conditions, we anticipate that we may deploy, on a debt-to-equity basis, up to ten times leverage on our Agency RMBS; however, there is no specific limit on the amount of leverage that we may use.
Leverage will magnify both the gains and the losses of our positions. Leverage will increase our returns as long as we earn a greater return on investments purchased with borrowed funds than our cost of borrowing such funds. However, if we use leverage to acquire an asset and the value of the asset decreases, the leverage will increase our losses. Even if the asset increases in value, if the asset fails to earn a return that equals or exceeds our cost of borrowing, leverage will decrease our returns.
We may be required to post large amounts of cash as collateral or margin to secure our leveraged positions, including on our MSR financing facilities. In the event of a sudden, precipitous drop in value of our financed assets, we might not be able to liquidate assets quickly enough to repay our borrowings, further magnifying losses. Even a small decrease in the value of a leveraged asset may require us to post additional margin or cash collateral. This may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations and decrease the cash available to us for distributions to stockholders.
We depend on repurchase agreements and other credit facilities to execute our business plan and any limitation on our ability to access funding through these sources could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and business.
Our ability to purchase and hold assets is affected by our ability to secure repurchase agreements and other credit facilities on acceptable terms. We currently have repurchase agreements, revolving credit facilities and other credit facilities in place with numerous counterparties, but we can provide no assurance that lenders will continue to provide us with sufficient financing through the repurchase markets or otherwise. In addition, with respect to MSR financing, there can be no assurance that the GSEs will consent to such transactions or consent on terms consistent with prior MSR financing transactions. Because repurchase agreements and similar credit facilities are generally short-term commitments of capital, changing conditions in the financing markets may make it more difficult for us to secure continued financing during times of market stress.
Our ability to efficiently access financing through our repurchase agreements or otherwise may be adversely impacted by counterparty requirements regarding the type of assets that may be sold and the timing and process for such sales. Counterparty review and approval processes may delay the timing in which funding may be provided, or preclude funding altogether. For MSR, delays may also occur due to the need to obtain GSE approval of the collateral to be posted, the need for third-party valuations of the MSR collateral or the agreement of the relevant subservicers to be party to the financing agreement. Our lenders also may revise their eligibility requirements for the types of assets they are willing to finance or the terms of such financings, based on, among other factors, the regulatory environment and their management of perceived risk.
Changes in the financing markets could adversely affect the marketability of the assets in which we invest, and this could negatively affect the value of our assets. If our lenders are unwilling or unable to provide us with financing, or if the financing is only available on terms that are uneconomical or otherwise not satisfactory to us, we could be forced to sell assets when prices are depressed. The amount of financing we receive under our repurchase agreements, revolving credit facilities or other credit facilities will be directly related to the lenders’ valuation of the assets that secure the outstanding borrowings. If a lender determines that the value of the assets has decreased, it typically has the right to initiate a margin call, requiring us to transfer additional assets to such lender, or repay a portion of the outstanding borrowings. We may be forced to sell assets at significantly depressed prices to meet margin calls and to maintain liquidity at levels satisfactory to the counterparty, which could cause us to incur losses. Moreover, to the extent that we are forced to sell assets because of the availability of financing or changes in market conditions, other market participants may face similar pressures, which could exacerbate a difficult market environment and result in significantly greater losses on the sale of such assets. In an extreme case of market duress, a market may not exist for certain of our assets at any price.
Although we generally seek to reduce our exposure to lender concentration-related risk by entering into financing relationships with multiple counterparties, we are not required to observe specific diversification criteria, except as may be set forth in the investment guidelines adopted by our board of directors. To the extent that the number of or net exposure under our lending arrangements may become concentrated with one or more lenders, the adverse impacts of defaults or terminations by such lenders may be significantly greater.
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Our inability to meet certain financial covenants related to our repurchase agreements, revolving credit facilities or other credit facilities could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
In connection with certain of our repurchase agreements, revolving credit facilities and other credit facilities, we are required to comply with certain financial covenants, the most restrictive of which are disclosed within Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Compliance with these financial covenants will depend on market factors and the strength of our business and operating results. Failure to comply with our financial covenants could result in an event of default, termination of the lending facility, acceleration of all amounts owing under the lending facility, and may give the counterparty the right to exercise certain other remedies under the lending agreement, including without limitation the sale of the asset subject to repurchase at the time of default, unless we were able to negotiate a waiver. In addition, we may be subject to cross-default provisions under certain financing facilities that could cause an event of default under such financing facilities to be triggered by events of default under other financing arrangements.
If a counterparty to a repurchase agreement defaults on its obligation to resell the underlying security back to us at the end of the repurchase agreement term, or if we default on our obligations under the repurchase agreement, we may incur losses.
When we enter into repurchase agreements, we sell the assets to lenders and receive cash from the lenders. The lenders are obligated to resell the same assets back to us at the end of the term of the repurchase agreement. Because the cash that we receive from the lender when we initially sell the assets to the lender is less than the value of those assets (the difference being the “haircut”), if the lender defaults on its obligation to resell the same assets back to us, we would incur a loss on the repurchase agreement equal to the amount of the haircut (assuming there was no change in the value of the securities). Further, if we default on our obligations under a repurchase agreement, the lender will be able to terminate the repurchase agreement and may cease entering into any other repurchase agreements with us. If a default occurs under any of our repurchase agreements and a lender terminates one or more of its repurchase agreements, we may need to enter into replacement repurchase agreements with different lenders. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in entering into such replacement repurchase agreements on the same terms as the repurchase agreements that were terminated or at all.
Our rights under our repurchase agreements are subject to the effects of bankruptcy laws in the event of the bankruptcy or insolvency of us or our lenders under the repurchase agreements.
In the event of our insolvency or bankruptcy, certain repurchase agreements may qualify for special treatment under the U.S. Bankruptcy Code, the effect of which, among other things, would be to allow the lender under the applicable repurchase agreement to avoid the automatic stay provisions of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code and to foreclose on the collateral agreement without delay. In the event of the insolvency or bankruptcy of a lender during the term of a repurchase agreement, the lender may be permitted, under applicable insolvency laws, to repudiate the contract, and our claim against the lender for damages may be treated simply as an unsecured creditor claim. In addition, if the lender is a broker or dealer subject to the Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970, or an insured depository institution subject to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, our ability to exercise our rights to recover our assets under a repurchase agreement or to be compensated for any damages resulting from the lender's insolvency may be further limited by those statutes. These claims would be subject to significant delay and, if and when received, may be substantially less than the damages we actually incur.
The impairment or negative performance of other financial institutions could adversely affect us.
We have exposure to and routinely execute transactions with numerous counterparties in the financial services industry, including broker-dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, investment funds and other institutions. The operations of U.S. and global financial services institutions are highly interconnected and a decline in the financial condition of one or more financial services institutions may expose us to credit losses or defaults, limit our access to liquidity or otherwise disrupt the operation of our businesses. While we regularly assess our exposure to different counterparties, the performance and financial strength of specific institutions are subject to rapid change, the timing and extent of which cannot be known.
We may not have the ability to raise funds necessary to pay principal amounts owed upon maturity of our outstanding convertible senior notes or to purchase such notes upon a fundamental change.
We have issued and outstanding $287.5 million aggregate principal amount of 6.25% convertible senior notes due January 2026. To the extent these notes are not converted into common stock by the noteholders prior to their maturity date, we will be obligated to repay the principal amount of all outstanding notes upon maturity. In addition, if a fundamental change occurs (as described in the supplemental indenture governing the notes), noteholders have the right to require us to purchase for cash any or all of their notes. We may not have sufficient funds available at the time we are required to repay principal amounts or to purchase the notes upon a fundamental change, and we may not be able to raise additional capital or arrange necessary financing in order to make such payments on terms that are acceptable to us, if at all.
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An increase in our borrowing costs relative to the interest that we receive on our leveraged assets may adversely affect our profitability.
As our repurchase agreements and other short-term borrowings mature, we must enter into new borrowings, find other sources of liquidity or sell assets. An increase in short-term interest rates at the time that we seek to enter into new borrowings would reduce the spread between the returns on our assets and the cost of our borrowings. This would adversely affect the returns on our assets, which might reduce earnings and, in turn, cash available for distribution to stockholders.
We are highly dependent on information technology, and system failures or security breaches could disrupt our business.
Our business is highly dependent on information technology. In the ordinary course of our business, we may store sensitive data, including our proprietary business information and that of our business partners, and personally identifiable information of mortgage borrowers, on our networks. The secure maintenance and transmission of this information is critical to our operations. Computer malware, viruses, ransomware and phishing attacks remain widespread and are increasingly sophisticated. We are from time to time the target of attempted cyber threats. We continuously monitor and develop our information technology networks and infrastructure to prevent, detect, address and mitigate the risk of unauthorized access, misuse, computer viruses and other events that could have a security impact. Despite these security measures, our information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breached due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions. Any such breach could compromise our networks and the information stored there could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. Any such access, disclosure or other loss of information could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability under laws that protect the privacy of personal information, regulatory penalties, disruption to our operations, or disruption to our trading activities or damage our reputation, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results and negatively affect the market price of our common stock and our ability to pay dividends to stockholders.
The resources required to protect our information technology and infrastructure, and to comply with the laws and regulations related to data and privacy protection, are subject to uncertainty. Even in circumstances where we are able to successfully protect such technology and infrastructure from attacks, we may incur significant expenses in connection with our responses to such attacks. Government and regulatory scrutiny of the measures taken by companies to protect against cyber-security attacks has resulted in heightened cyber-security requirements and additional regulatory oversight. Any of the foregoing may adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition.
We enter into hedging transactions that expose us to contingent liabilities in the future, which may adversely affect our financial results or cash available for distribution to stockholders.
We engage in transactions intended to hedge against various risks to our portfolio, including the exposure to changes in interest rates. The extent of our hedging activity varies in scope based on, among other things, the level and volatility of interest rates, the type of assets held and other market conditions. Although these transactions are intended to reduce our exposure to various risks, hedging may fail to adequately protect or could adversely affect us because, among other things: available hedges may not correspond directly with the risks for which protection is sought; the duration of the hedge may not match the duration of the related liability; the amount of income that a REIT may earn from certain hedging transactions is limited by U.S. federal income tax provisions; the credit quality of a hedging counterparty may be downgraded to such an extent that it impairs our ability to sell or assign our side of the hedging transaction; and the hedging counterparty may default on its obligations.
Subject to maintaining our qualification as a REIT and satisfying the criteria for no-action relief from the Commodity Futures Trading Commission’s commodity pool operator registration rules, there are no current limitations on the hedging transactions that we may undertake. Our hedging transactions could require us to fund large cash payments in certain circumstances (e.g., the early termination of the hedging instrument caused by an event of default or other early termination event, or a demand by a counterparty that we make increased margin payments). Our ability to fund these obligations will depend on the liquidity of our assets and our access to capital at the time. The need to fund these obligations could adversely affect our financial condition. Further, hedging transactions, which are intended to limit losses, may actually result in losses, which would adversely affect our earnings and could in turn reduce cash available for distribution to stockholders.
Our financial results may experience greater fluctuations due to our decision not to elect hedge accounting treatment on our derivative instruments.
We have elected to not qualify for hedge accounting treatment under Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 815, Derivatives and Hedging, or ASC 815, for our current derivative instruments. The economics of our derivative hedging transactions are not affected by this election; however, our earnings (losses) for U.S. GAAP purposes may be subject to greater fluctuations from period to period as a result of this accounting treatment for changes in fair value of derivative instruments or for the accounting of the underlying hedged assets or liabilities in our financial statements, as it does not necessarily align with the accounting used for derivative instruments.
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We depend on third-party service providers, including mortgage loan servicers, for a variety of services related to our business. We are, therefore, subject to the risks associated with third-party service providers.
We depend on a variety of services provided by third-party service providers related to our investments in Agency RMBS and MSR, as well as for general operating purposes. For example, we rely on the mortgage servicers who service the mortgage loans underlying our Agency RMBS and MSR to, among other things, collect principal and interest payments on such mortgage loans and perform loss mitigation services in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. Mortgage servicers and other service providers, such as trustees, bond insurance providers, due diligence vendors and document custodians, may fail to perform or otherwise not perform in a manner that promotes our interests.
Recent enhancements have been made to legislation and regulations intended to assist borrowers struggling to continue making their contractual mortgage payments. These requirements may delay, reduce or prevent foreclosures through, among other things, loan modifications and other loss mitigation measures, but they may also result in reduced value of the related mortgage loans, including those underlying our Agency RMBS and MSR. Mortgage servicers may be required or otherwise incentivized by federal or state governments to pursue such actions designed to assist mortgagors, including loan modifications, forbearance plans and other actions intended to prevent foreclosure. While these actions may be beneficial to borrowers, they may not be in the best interests of the beneficial owners of the mortgage loans. As a consequence of the foregoing matters, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
In addition, in connection with our ownership of MSR, we possess personally identifiable information that is shared with third-party service providers, including our mortgage servicers, as required or permitted by law. In the event the information technology networks and infrastructure of our third-party service providers is breached, we may be liable for losses suffered by individuals whose personal information is stolen as a result of such breach and any such liability could be material. Even if we are not liable for such losses, any breach of these third-party systems could expose us to material costs related to notifying affected individuals or other parties and providing credit monitoring services, as well as to regulatory fines or penalties.
We may be subject to fines, penalties or other enforcement actions based on the conduct of third-party mortgage loan servicers who service the loans underlying the MSR we acquire or our failure to conduct appropriate oversight of these servicers.
We contract with third-party mortgage loan servicers to perform the actual day-to-day servicing obligations on the mortgage loans underlying our MSR. We and the mortgage loan servicers operate in a highly regulated industry and are required to comply with various federal, state and local laws and regulations, including the obligation to oversee our third-party mortgage servicers to assess their compliance with these laws and regulations. Although the servicing activity is conducted primarily in the name of the mortgage loan servicers, to the extent these servicers fail to comply with applicable laws and regulations, we could be subject to governmental actions such as denial, suspension or revocation of licenses, be fined or otherwise subject to regulatory enforcement action, or incur losses or be subject to lawsuits.
Our ability to own and manage MSR is subject to terms and conditions established by the GSEs, which are subject to change.
Our subsidiary’s continued approval from the GSEs to own and manage MSR is subject to compliance with each of their respective selling and servicing guidelines, minimum capital requirements and other conditions they may impose from time to time at their discretion. Failure to meet such guidelines and conditions could result in the unilateral termination of our subsidiary’s approved status by one or more GSEs or result in the acceleration and termination of our MSR financing facilities. In addition, the implementation of more restrictive or operationally intensive guidance may increase the costs associated with owning and managing MSR as well as our ability to finance MSR.
Our securitization activities expose us to risk of litigation, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.
In connection with our securitization transactions, we prepare disclosure documentation, including term sheets and offering memorandums, which contain disclosures regarding the securitization transactions and the assets securitized. If our disclosure documentation is alleged or found to contain inaccuracies or omissions, we may be liable under federal securities laws, state securities laws or other applicable laws for damages to third parties that invest in these securitization transactions, including in circumstances in which we relied on a third party in preparing accurate disclosures, or we may incur other expenses and costs in connection with disputing these allegations or settling claims.
We may be subject to representation and warranty risk in our capacity as an owner of MSR as well as in connection with our prior securitization transactions and our sales of MSR and other assets.
The MSR we acquire may be subject to existing representations and warranties made to the applicable investor (including, without limitation, the GSEs) regarding, among other things, the origination and prior servicing of those mortgage loans, as well as future servicing practices following our acquisition of such MSR. If such representations and warranties are inaccurate, we may be obligated to repurchase certain mortgage loans or indemnify the applicable investor for any losses suffered as a result of the origination or prior servicing of the mortgage loans. As such, the applicable investor will have direct recourse to us for such origination and/or prior servicing issues.
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In connection with our prior securitization transactions and with the sales of our MSR and other assets from time to time, we may have been or may be required to make representations and warranties to the purchasers of the assets regarding certain characteristics of those assets. If our representations and warranties are inaccurate, we may be obligated to repurchase the assets, which may result in a loss. Even if we obtain representations and warranties from the parties from whom we acquired the asset, as applicable, they may not correspond with the representations and warranties we make or may otherwise not protect us from losses. Additionally, the loan originator or other parties from whom we acquired the MSR may be insolvent or otherwise unable to honor their respective indemnification or repurchase obligations for breaches of representation and warranties.
Risks Related To Our Assets
Declines in the market values of our assets may adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
A substantial portion of our assets are classified for accounting purposes as “available-for-sale.” Changes in the market values of those assets will be directly charged or credited to stockholders’ equity. As a result, a decline in values may result in connection with factors that are out of our control and adversely affect our book value. Moreover, if the decline in value of an available-for-sale security is other than temporary, such decline will reduce our earnings.
In addition, some of the assets in our portfolio are not publicly traded. The fair value of securities and other assets that are not publicly traded may not be readily determinable. We value these assets quarterly at fair value, as determined in accordance with ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, which may include unobservable inputs. Because such valuations are subjective, the fair value of certain of our assets may fluctuate over short periods of time and our determinations of fair value may differ materially from the values that would have been used if a ready market for these securities existed. We may be adversely affected if our determinations regarding the fair value of these assets are materially higher than the values that we ultimately realize upon their disposal.
Changes in mortgage prepayment rates may adversely affect the value of our assets.
The value of our assets is affected by prepayment rates on mortgage loans, and our investment strategy includes making investments based on our expectations regarding prepayment rates. A prepayment rate is the measurement of how quickly borrowers pay down the unpaid principal balance of their loans or how quickly loans are otherwise brought current, modified, liquidated or charged off. With respect to our securities portfolio, typically the value of a mortgage-backed security includes market assumptions regarding the speed at which the underlying mortgages will be prepaid. Faster than expected prepayments could adversely affect our profitability, including in the following ways:
We may purchase securities that have a higher interest rate than the market interest rate at the time. In exchange for this higher interest rate, we may pay a premium over the par value to acquire the security. In accordance with U.S. GAAP, we may amortize this premium over the estimated term of the security. If the security is prepaid in whole or in part prior to its maturity date, however, we may be required to expense the premium that was prepaid at the time of the prepayment.
A substantial portion of our adjustable-rate Agency RMBS may bear interest rates that are lower than their fully indexed rates, which are equivalent to the applicable index rate plus a margin. If an adjustable-rate security is prepaid prior to or soon after the time of adjustment to a fully-indexed rate, we will have held that security while it was least profitable and lost the opportunity to receive interest at the fully indexed rate over the remainder of its expected life.
If we are unable to acquire new Agency RMBS similar to the prepaid security, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could suffer.
Changes in prepayment rates also significantly affect the value of MSR because such rights are priced on an assumption of a stable repayment rate. If the prepayment rate is significantly greater than expected, the fair value of the MSR could decline and we may be required to record a non-cash charge, which would have a negative impact on our financial results. Furthermore, a significant increase in the prepayment rate could materially reduce the ultimate cash flows we receive from MSR, and we could ultimately receive substantially less than what we paid for such assets.
Prepayment rates may be affected by a number of factors including mortgage rates, the availability of mortgage credit, the relative economic vitality of the area in which the related properties are located, the remaining life of the loans, the size of the remaining loans, the servicing of mortgage loans, changes in tax laws, other opportunities for investment, homeowner mobility and other economic, social, geographic, demographic and legal factors. Consequently, prepayment rates cannot be predicted with certainty. If we make erroneous assumptions regarding prepayment rates in connection with our investment decisions, we may experience significant losses.
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Changes in inter-bank lending rate reporting practices or the method pursuant to which LIBOR is determined may adversely affect the value of our assets and financial obligations that are linked to LIBOR.
LIBOR and other “benchmark” indices have been the subject of recent national, international and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. On March 5, 2021, Intercontinental Exchange Inc. announced that ICE Benchmark Administration Limited, the administrator of LIBOR, intends to stop publication of the majority of USD-LIBOR tenors on June 30, 2023. In the U.S., the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, or ARRC, has identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate, or SOFR, as its preferred alternative rate for U.S. dollar-based LIBOR. SOFR is a measure of the cost of borrowing cash overnight, collateralized by U.S. Treasury securities, and is based on directly observable U.S. Treasury-backed repurchase transactions. The ARRC has proposed a paced market transition plan to SOFR, and various organizations are currently working on industry wide and company-specific transition plans as it relates to derivatives and cash markets exposed to LIBOR. All of our financing arrangements and derivative instruments that incorporate LIBOR as the referenced rate either mature prior to the phase out of LIBOR or have provisions in place that provide for an alternative to LIBOR upon its phase-out. Additionally, each series of our fixed-to-floating preferred stock that becomes callable at the time the stock begins to pay a LIBOR-based rate has existing LIBOR cessation fallback language. Given the differences between LIBOR and any other alternative benchmark rate that may be established, there are many uncertainties regarding a transition from LIBOR. The consequences of these developments with respect to LIBOR cannot be entirely predicted, and may span multiple future periods, but could result in an increase in the cost of our variable rate debt or derivative financial instruments which may be detrimental to our financial position or operating results.
Our delayed delivery transactions, including TBAs, subject us to certain risks, including price risks and counterparty risks.
We may purchase Agency RMBS through delayed delivery transactions, including TBAs. In a delayed delivery transaction, we enter into a forward purchase agreement with a counterparty to purchase either (i) an identified Agency RMBS, or (ii) a to-be-issued (or “to-be-announced”) Agency RMBS with certain terms. As with any forward purchase contract, the value of the underlying Agency RMBS may decrease between the contract date and the settlement date. Furthermore, a transaction counterparty may fail to deliver the underlying Agency RMBS at the settlement date.
It may be uneconomical to roll our TBA dollar roll transactions or we may be unable to meet margin calls on our TBA contracts, which could negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We utilize TBA dollar roll transactions as a means of investing in and financing Agency RMBS. TBA contracts enable us to purchase or sell, for future delivery, Agency RMBS with certain principal and interest terms and certain types of collateral, but the specific securities to be delivered are not identified until shortly before the TBA settlement date. Prior to settlement of the TBA contract we may choose to move the settlement of the securities to a later date by entering into an offsetting position (referred to as a “pair off”), net settling the paired off positions for cash, and simultaneously purchasing a similar TBA contact for a later settlement date, collectively referred to as a “dollar roll”. The Agency RMBS purchased for a forward settlement date under the TBA contracts are typically priced at a discount to Agency RMBS for settlement in the current month. This difference (or discount) is referred to as the “price drop.” The price drop is the economic equivalent of net interest carry income on the underlying Agency RMBS over the roll period (interest income less implied financing cost) and is commonly referred to as a “dollar roll income.” Consequently, dollar roll transactions and such forward purchase of Agency RMBS represent a form of financing and increase our “at-risk” leverage.
Under certain market conditions, TBA dollar roll transactions may result in negative carry income whereby the Agency RMBS purchased for a forward settlement date under TBA contract are priced at a premium to Agency RMBS for settlement in the current month. Under such conditions, it may be uneconomical to roll our TBA positions prior to the settlement date, and we may have to take physical delivery of the underlying securities and settle our obligations for cash. We may not have sufficient funds or alternative financing sources available to settle such obligations. In addition, pursuant to the margin provisions established by the Mortgage-Backed Securities Division (MBSD) of the FICC, we are subject to margin calls on our TBA contracts. Further, our prime brokerage agreements may require us to post additional margin above the levels established by the MBSD. Any failure to procure adequate financing to settle our obligations or meet margin calls under our TBA contracts could result in defaults or force us to sell assets under adverse market conditions or through foreclosure and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Increases in interest rates could adversely affect the value of our assets and cause our interest expense to increase.
Our operating results depend in large part on the difference between the income from our assets and financing costs. We anticipate that, in many cases, the income from our assets will respond more slowly to interest rate fluctuations than the cost of our borrowings. Consequently, changes in interest rates, particularly short-term interest rates, may significantly influence our financial results.
Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors, including governmental monetary and tax policies, domestic and international economic and political considerations and other factors beyond our control. We cannot predict the impact that any future actions or non-actions by the Federal Reserve with respect to the federal funds rate or otherwise may have on the markets or the economy. Interest rate fluctuations present a variety of risks, including the risk of a narrowing of the difference between asset yields and borrowing rates, flattening or inversion of the yield curve and fluctuating prepayment rates.
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We endeavor to hedge our exposure to changes in interest rates, but there can be no assurances that our hedges will be successful, or that we will be able to enter into or maintain such hedges. As a result, interest rate fluctuations can cause significant losses, reductions in income, and limitations on our cash available for distribution to stockholders.
An increase in interest rates may cause a decrease in the availability of certain of our target assets, which could adversely affect our ability to acquire target assets that satisfy our investment objectives and to generate income and pay dividends.
Rising interest rates generally reduce the demand for mortgage loans due to the higher cost of borrowing. A reduction in the volume of mortgage loans originated may affect the volume of certain target assets available to us, which could adversely affect our ability to acquire assets that satisfy our investment and business objectives. Rising interest rates may also cause certain target assets that were issued prior to an interest rate increase to provide yields that are below prevailing market interest rates. If rising interest rates cause us to be unable to acquire a sufficient volume of our target assets with a yield that is above our borrowing cost, our ability to satisfy our investment objectives and to generate income and pay dividends may be materially and adversely affected.
The value of our Agency RMBS and MSR may be adversely affected by deficiencies in servicing and foreclosure practices, as well as related delays in the foreclosure process.
Deficiencies in servicing and foreclosure practices among servicers of residential mortgage loans have raised and may in the future raise concerns relating to such practices. The integrity of servicing and foreclosure processes is critical to the value of our Agency RMBS and MSR, and our financial results could be adversely affected by deficiencies in the conduct of those processes. For example, delays in the foreclosure process that may result from improper servicing practices may adversely affect the values of, and our losses on, our mortgage-related assets. Foreclosure delays may also result in the curtailment of payments to the GSEs, thereby resulting in additional expense and reducing the amount of funds available for distribution to investors. We continue to monitor and review the issues raised by improper servicing practices. While we cannot predict exactly how servicing, loss mitigation and foreclosure matters or any resulting litigation, regulatory actions or settlement agreements will affect our business, there can be no assurance that these matters will not have an adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition.
Legal matters related to the termination of our Management Agreement with PRCM Advisers may adversely affect our business, results of operations, and/or financial condition.
On August 14, 2020, our Management Agreement with PRCM Advisers terminated and we thereafter became a self-managed company. In connection with the termination of our Management Agreement, PRCM Advisers filed a complaint in federal court that alleges, among other things, the misappropriation of trade secrets in violation of both the Defend Trade Secrets Act and New York common law, breach of contract, breach of the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing, unfair competition and business practices, unjust enrichment, conversion, and tortious interference with contract. The complaint seeks, among other things, an order enjoining the company from making any use of or disclosing PRCM Advisers’ trade secret, proprietary, or confidential information; damages in an amount to be determined at a hearing and/or trial; disgorgement of the company’s wrongfully obtained profits; and fees and costs incurred by PRCM Advisers in pursuing the action. Our board of directors believes the complaint is without merit and that the company has complied with the terms of the Management Agreement. However, the results of litigation are inherently uncertain. It is possible that a court could enjoin us from using certain intellectual property. In addition, any damages or costs and fees that may be awarded to PRCM Advisers related to the litigation may be significant. While we dispute and intend to vigorously defend against the claims set forth in the complaint, it is possible that the results of the litigation with PRCM Advisers may adversely affect our business, results of operations, and/or financial condition.
Risks Related to Our Organization and Structure
Certain provisions of Maryland law could inhibit changes in control.
Certain provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law, or MGCL, may have the effect of deterring a third party from making a proposal to acquire us or of impeding a change in control under circumstances that otherwise could provide the holders of shares of our common stock with the opportunity to realize a premium over the then-prevailing market price of such shares. We are subject to the “business combination” provisions of the MGCL that, subject to limitations, prohibit certain business combinations between our company and an “interested stockholder” (as defined under the MGCL) or an affiliate thereof for five years after the most recent date on which the stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. In addition, the “unsolicited takeover” provisions of the MGCL (Title 3, Subtitle 8 of the MGCL) permit our board of directors, without stockholder approval and regardless of what is currently provided in our charter or bylaws, to implement takeover defenses, some of which we do not currently have. These provisions may have the effect of inhibiting a third party from making an acquisition proposal for our company or of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company.
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Our authorized but unissued shares of common and preferred stock and the ownership limitations contained in our charter may prevent a change in control.
Our charter authorizes Two Harbors to issue additional authorized but unissued shares of common or preferred stock. In addition, our board of directors may, without stockholder approval, amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of our stock or the number of shares of stock of any class or series that Two Harbors has the authority to issue and classify or reclassify any unissued shares of common or preferred stock and set the terms of the classified or reclassified shares. As a result, our board may establish a series of shares of common or preferred stock that could delay or prevent a transaction or a change in control that might be in the best interests of stockholders.
In addition, our charter contains restrictions limiting the ownership and transfer of shares of our common stock and other outstanding shares of capital stock. The relevant sections of our charter provide that, subject to certain exceptions, ownership of shares of our common stock by any person is limited to 9.8% by value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding shares of common stock (the common share ownership limit), and no more than 9.8% by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding capital stock (the aggregate share ownership limit). The common share ownership limit and the aggregate share ownership limit are collectively referred to herein as the “ownership limits.” These charter provisions will restrict the ability of persons to purchase shares in excess of the relevant ownership limits.
Our charter contains provisions that make removal of our directors difficult, which could make it difficult for stockholders to effect changes in management.
Our charter provides that, subject to the rights of any series of preferred stock, a director may be removed only by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors. Our charter and bylaws provide that vacancies generally may be filled only by a majority of the remaining directors in office, even if less than a quorum. These requirements make it more difficult to change management by removing and replacing directors and may prevent a change in control that is in the best interests of stockholders.
Our rights and stockholders’ rights to take action against directors and officers are limited, which could limit recourse in the event of actions not in the best interests of stockholders.
As permitted by Maryland law, our charter eliminates the liability of its directors and officers to Two Harbors and its stockholders for money damages, except for liability resulting from: actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services; or a final judgment based upon a finding of active and deliberate dishonesty by the director or officer that was material to the cause of action adjudicated.
In addition, pursuant to our charter we have agreed contractually to indemnify our present and former directors and officers for actions taken by them in those capacities to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law. Further, our bylaws require us to indemnify each present or former director or officer, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, who is made, or threatened to be made, a party to any proceeding because of his or her service to Two Harbors. As part of these indemnification obligations, we may be obligated to fund the defense costs incurred by our directors and officers.
Our amended and restated bylaws designate certain Maryland courts as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders.
Our amended and restated bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland, or, if that Court does not have jurisdiction, the United States District Court for the District of Maryland, Baltimore Division, shall be the sole and exclusive forum for the following: any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the company; any action asserting a claim of breach of any duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to the company or to our stockholders; any action asserting a claim against the company or any of our directors, officers or other employees arising pursuant to any provision of the MGCL or our charter or bylaws; or any action asserting a claim against the company or any of our directors, officers or other employees that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. This choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that the stockholder believes is favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and employees.
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Risks Related to Our Securities
Future issuances and sales of shares of our common stock may depress the market price of our common stock or have adverse consequences for our stockholders.
We may issue additional shares of our common stock in public offerings, private placements as well as through equity awards to our directors, officers and employees pursuant to our Second Restated 2009 Equity Incentive Plan or our 2021 Equity Incentive Plan. Additionally, shares of our common stock have also been reserved for issuance in connection with the conversion of our 6.25% convertible senior notes due 2026 and our Series A, Series B and Series C preferred stock. We cannot predict the effect, if any, of future issuances or sales of our common stock on the market price of our common stock. We also cannot predict the amounts and timing of equity awards to be issued pursuant to our equity incentive plans, nor can we predict the amount and timing of any conversions of our convertible senior notes due January 2026 or our Series A, Series B and Series C preferred stock into shares of our common stock. Any stock offerings, awards or conversions resulting in the issuance of substantial amounts of common stock, or the perception that such awards or conversions could occur, may adversely affect the market price for our common stock.
Any future offerings of our securities could dilute our existing stockholders and may rank senior for purposes of dividend and liquidating distributions.
We may from time to time issue securities which may rank senior and/or be dilutive to our stockholders. For example, our senior unsecured notes due January 2026 are convertible into shares of our common stock at the election of the noteholder, and our Series A, Series B and Series C preferred shares may be converted into shares of our common stock following the occurrence of certain events, as set forth in the articles supplementary for each series. Any election by noteholders or preferred stockholders to convert their notes or preferred shares into shares of our common stock will dilute the interests of other common stockholders.
In the future, we may again elect to raise capital through the issuance of convertible or non-convertible debt or common or preferred equity securities. Upon liquidation, holders of our debt securities and preferred stock, if any, and lenders with respect to other borrowings will be entitled to our available assets prior to the holders of our common stock. Convertible debt and convertible preferred stock may have anti-dilution provisions which are unfavorable to our common stockholders. Because our decision to issue debt or equity securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings. Thus, our stockholders bear the risk of our future offerings reducing the market price of our common stock and diluting the value of their holdings.
We have not established a minimum distribution payment level and we cannot assure you of our ability to pay distributions in the future.
We intend to continue to pay quarterly distributions and to make distributions to our stockholders in an amount such that we distribute all or substantially all of our REIT taxable income in each year. We have not established a minimum distribution payment level and our ability to pay distributions may be adversely affected by a number of factors, including the risk factors described herein. All distributions will be made, subject to Maryland law, at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our earnings, our financial condition, any debt covenants, maintenance of our REIT qualification and other factors as our board of directors may deem relevant. We cannot assure you that we will achieve results that will allow us to make a specified level of cash distributions and distributions in future periods may be significantly lower than in prior quarterly periods.
The market price of our common stock could fluctuate and could cause you to lose a significant part of your investment.
The market price of our common stock may be highly volatile. In addition, the trading volume in our common stock may fluctuate and cause significant price variations to occur. If the market price of our common stock declines significantly, you may be unable to resell your shares of our common stock at a gain. We cannot assure you that the market price of our common stock will not fluctuate or decline significantly in the future.
The market price of our common stock may be influenced by many factors, including without limitation: changes in financial estimates by analysts; fluctuations in our results of operations or financial condition or the results of operations or financial condition of companies perceived to be similar to us; general economic and financial and real estate market conditions; changes in market valuations of similar companies; monetary policy and regulatory developments in the U.S.; and additions or departures of key personnel.
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Tax Risks
Our failure to qualify as a REIT would subject us to U.S. federal income tax and potentially increased state and local taxes, which would reduce the amount of our income available for distribution to our stockholders.
We operate in a manner that will enable us to qualify as a REIT and have elected to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2009. We have not requested and do not intend to request a ruling from the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, that we qualify as a REIT. The U.S. federal income tax laws governing REITs and the assets they hold are complex, and judicial and administrative interpretations of the U.S. federal income tax laws governing REIT qualification are limited. To continue to qualify as a REIT, we must meet, on an ongoing basis, various tests regarding the nature of our assets and income, the ownership of our outstanding shares, and the amount of our distributions. Moreover, new legislation, court decisions, administrative guidance or actions by federal agencies or others to modify or re-characterize our assets may make it more difficult or impossible for us to qualify as a REIT. Thus, while we intend to operate so that we qualify as a REIT, no assurance can be given that we will so qualify for any particular year.
If we fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, and do not qualify for certain statutory relief provisions, we would be required to pay U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income, and distributions to our stockholders would not be deductible by us in determining our taxable income. Furthermore, if we fail to maintain our qualification as a REIT, we no longer would be required to distribute substantially all of our net taxable income to stockholders.
Complying with REIT requirements may cause us to forego otherwise attractive investment opportunities or financing or hedging strategies.
In order to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we must continually satisfy various tests on an annual and quarterly basis regarding the sources of our income, the nature and diversification of our assets, the amounts we distribute to stockholders and the ownership of our stock. To meet these tests, we may be required to forego investments we might otherwise make. We may be required to make distributions to stockholders at disadvantageous times. Thus, compliance with the REIT requirements may hinder our investment performance.
Complying with REIT requirements may force us to liquidate otherwise profitable assets.
In order to continue to qualify as a REIT, we must ensure that at the end of each calendar quarter, at least 75% of the value of our assets consists of cash, cash items, government securities and designated real estate assets, including certain mortgage loans and shares in other REITs. Subject to certain exceptions, our ownership of securities, other than government securities and securities that constitute real estate assets, generally cannot include more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of any one issuer or more than 10% of the total value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer. In addition, in general, no more than 5% of the value of our total assets, other than government securities and securities that constitute real estate assets, can consist of the securities of any one issuer, no more than 20% of the value of our total assets can be represented by securities of one or more TRSs, and no more than 25% of the value of our total assets can consist of debt of “publicly offered” REITs that is not secured by real property or interests in real property. If we fail to comply with these requirements at the end of any calendar quarter, we must generally correct such failure within 30 days after the end of such calendar quarter to avoid losing our REIT qualification. As a result, we may be required to liquidate otherwise profitable assets prematurely, which could reduce our return on assets, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Potential characterization of distributions or gain on sale may be treated as unrelated business taxable income to tax exempt investors.
If (i) all or a portion of our assets are subject to the rules relating to taxable mortgage pools, (ii) we are a “pension held REIT,” (iii) a tax exempt stockholder has incurred debt to purchase or hold our common stock, or (iv) we purchase residual REMIC interests that generate “excess inclusion income,” then a portion of the distributions to and, in the case of a stockholder described in clause (iii), gains realized on the sale of common stock by such tax exempt stockholder may be subject to U.S. federal income tax as unrelated business taxable income under the Code.
Complying with REIT requirements may limit our ability to hedge effectively.
The REIT provisions of the Code may limit our ability to hedge our assets and liabilities. Any income from a hedging transaction will not constitute gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income test if we properly identify the transaction as specified in applicable Treasury Regulations and we enter into such transaction (i) in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of interest rate or price changes or currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made, or ordinary obligations incurred or to be incurred, to acquire or carry real estate assets or (ii) primarily to manage risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that would be qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income tests. To the extent that we enter into other types of hedging transactions, the income from those transactions is likely to be treated as non-qualifying income for purposes of both of these gross income tests. As a result of these rules, we intend to limit our use of advantageous hedging techniques or implement those hedges through a TRS. This could increase the cost of our hedging activities.
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The failure of our Agency RMBS that are subject to a repurchase agreement to qualify as real estate assets would adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT.
We may enter into repurchase agreements under which we will nominally sell certain of our Agency RMBS to a counterparty and simultaneously enter into an agreement to repurchase the sold assets. We believe that we will be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as the owner of the securities that are the subject of any such agreement notwithstanding that such agreement may transfer record ownership of the assets to the counterparty during the term of the agreement. It is possible, however, that the IRS could assert that we did not own the securities during the term of the repurchase agreement, in which case we could fail to qualify as a REIT.
REIT distribution requirements could adversely affect our ability to execute our business plan and may require us to incur debt, sell assets or take other actions to make such distributions.
In order to continue to qualify as a REIT, we must distribute to stockholders, each calendar year, at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (including certain items of non-cash income), determined without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and excluding net capital gain. To the extent that we satisfy the 90% distribution requirement, but distribute less than 100% of our taxable income, we will be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on our undistributed income. In addition, we will incur a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the amount, if any, by which our distributions in any calendar year are less than a minimum amount specified under U.S. federal income tax law.
We intend to distribute our net income to stockholders in a manner intended to satisfy the 90% distribution requirement and to avoid both corporate income tax and the 4% nondeductible excise tax. Our taxable income may substantially exceed our net income as determined by U.S. GAAP or differences in timing between the recognition of taxable income and the actual receipt of cash may occur in which case we may have taxable income in excess of cash flow from our operating activities. In such event, we may generate less cash flow than taxable income in a particular year and find it difficult or impossible to meet the REIT distribution requirements.
Our qualification as a REIT may depend on the accuracy of legal opinions or advice rendered or given or statements by the issuers of assets we acquire, including with respect to the treatment of our TBA securities and transactions for tax purposes.
When purchasing securities, we may rely on opinions or advice of counsel for the issuer of such securities, or statements made in related offering documents, for purposes of determining, among other things, whether such securities represent debt or equity securities for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the value of such securities, and also to what extent those securities constitute qualified real estate assets for purposes of the REIT asset tests and produce qualified income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. In addition, we may from time to time obtain and rely upon opinions of counsel regarding the qualification of certain assets and income as real estate assets. The inaccuracy of any such opinions, advice or statements may adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT and result in significant corporate-level tax.
We may utilize TBAs as a means of investing and financing Agency RMBS. There is no direct authority with respect to the qualification of TBAs as real estate assets or U.S. government securities for purposes of the 75% asset test or the qualification of income or gains from dispositions of TBAs as gains from the sale of real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property) or other qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. We intend to treat our TBAs as qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test, to the extent set forth in an opinion from Sidley Austin LLP substantially to the effect that, for purposes of the 75% asset test, our ownership of TBAs should be treated as ownership of the underlying Agency RMBS, and to treat income and gains from our TBAs as qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, to the extent set forth in an opinion from Sidley Austin LLP substantially to the effect that, for purposes of the 75% gross income test, any gain recognized by us in connection with the settlement of our TBAs should be treated as gain from the sale or disposition of the underlying Agency RMBS. Such opinions of counsel are not binding on the IRS, and there can be no assurance that the IRS will not successfully challenge the conclusions set forth therein.
Our ownership of, and relationship with, our TRSs will be restricted and a failure to comply with the restrictions would jeopardize our REIT status and may result in the application of a 100% excise tax.
A REIT may own up to 100% of the stock of one or more TRSs. A TRS may earn income that would not be qualifying REIT income if earned directly by the parent REIT. Both the TRS and the REIT must jointly elect to treat the subsidiary as a TRS. A corporation of which a TRS directly or indirectly owns more than 35% of the voting power or value of the stock will automatically be treated as a TRS. Overall, no more than 20% of the value of a REIT’s total assets may consist of stock or securities of one or more TRSs. The value of our interests in and thus the amount of assets held in a TRS may also be restricted by our need to qualify for an exclusion from regulation as an investment company under the Investment Company Act.
Any domestic TRS we own will pay U.S. federal, state and local income tax at regular corporate rates. In addition, the TRS rules limit the deductibility of interest paid or accrued by a TRS to its parent REIT to assure that the TRS is subject to an appropriate level of corporate taxation. The rules also impose a 100% excise tax on certain transactions between a TRS and its parent REIT that are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis. Although we monitor our investments in and transactions with TRSs, there can be no assurance that we will be able to comply with the limitation on the value of our TRSs discussed above or to avoid application of the 100% excise tax discussed above.
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Dividends payable by REITs generally do not qualify for the reduced tax rates on dividend income from regular corporations, which could adversely affect the value of our shares.
The maximum U.S. federal income tax rate for dividends payable to domestic stockholders that are individuals, trusts and estates is 20%. Dividends payable by REITs, however, are generally not eligible for these reduced rates. Although the reduced U.S. federal income tax rate applicable to dividend income from regular corporate dividends does not adversely affect the taxation of REITs or dividends paid by REITs, the more favorable rates applicable to regular corporate dividends could cause investors who are individuals, trusts and estates to perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than investments in the stocks of non-REIT corporations that pay dividends, which could adversely affect the value of the shares of REITs, including our shares of common stock.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

Item 2. Properties
We lease and/or sublease administrative office space in New York, Minnesota and Massachusetts. We do not own, lease or utilize any physical properties that would be considered material to our business and operations.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings
From time to time, the Company may be subject to liability under laws and government regulations and various claims and legal actions arising in the ordinary course of business. As previously disclosed, on April 13, 2020, the Company announced that it had elected not to renew the Management Agreement with PRCM Advisers. Subsequently, on July 15, 2020, the Company provided PRCM Advisers with a notice of termination of the Management Agreement for “cause” in accordance with Section 15(a) of the Management Agreement. The Company terminated the Management Agreement for “cause” on the basis of certain material breaches and certain events of gross negligence on the part of PRCM Advisers in the performance of its duties under the Management Agreement.
On July 21, 2020, PRCM Advisers filed a complaint against the Company in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, or the Court. Subsequently, PRCM Advisers filed an amended complaint, or the Federal Complaint, on September 4, 2020. The Federal Complaint alleges, among other things, the misappropriation of trade secrets in violation of both the Defend Trade Secrets Act and New York common law, breach of contract, breach of the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing, unfair competition and business practices, unjust enrichment, conversion, and tortious interference with contract. The Federal Complaint seeks, among other things, an order enjoining the Company from making any use of or disclosing PRCM Advisers’ trade secret, proprietary, or confidential information; damages in an amount to be determined at a hearing and/or trial; disgorgement of the Company’s wrongfully obtained profits; and fees and costs incurred by PRCM Advisers in pursuing the action. On September 25, 2020, the Company filed a motion to dismiss the Federal Complaint. PRCM Advisers thereafter filed an opposition to the motion to dismiss on October 16, 2020, and on October 26, 2020, the Company filed its reply. On June 23, 2021, the Court granted in part and denied in part the Company’s motion to dismiss. The Court dismissed PRCM Advisers’ claims challenging the termination of the Management Agreement, including PRCM Advisers’ claims for breach of contract with respect to Sections 13(a) and 15 of the Management Agreement and for breach of the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing, as well as certain of PRCM Advisers’ other claims.
On July 7, 2021, PRCM Advisers filed a motion for leave to amend the Federal Complaint for the purpose of amending certain allegations related to PRCM Advisers’ claim for breach of contract with respect to Section 15 of the Management Agreement, and the purpose of adding Pine River Domestic Management L.P. and Pine River Capital Management L.P. as plaintiffs. On July 21, 2021, the Company filed an opposition to the motion to amend, and on July 28, 2021, PRCM Advisers filed its reply. On October 18, 2021, the Court granted PRCM Advisers’ motion for leave to amend the Federal Complaint, and deemed PRCM Advisers’ second amended complaint served. On November 17, 2021, the Company filed its answer and counterclaims against PRCM Advisers and Pine River Capital Management L.P. in the Court. On December 17, 2021, PRCM Advisers and Pine River Capital Management L.P. filed their answer to the Company’s counterclaims. The Company’s board of directors believes the Federal Complaint is without merit and that the Company has fully complied with the terms of the Management Agreement.
Separately, the staff of the SEC conducted a non-public investigation in connection with the Company’s decisions not to renew its Management Agreement with PRCM Advisers on the basis of unfair compensation payable to PRCM Advisers in accordance with Section 13(a)(ii) of the Management Agreement and to terminate its Management Agreement with PRCM Advisers for “cause” in accordance with Section 15 of the Management Agreement. The Company fully cooperated with the SEC. On January 5, 2022, the SEC informed the Company that it had concluded its investigation as to the Company and that, based on the information provided to the SEC as of such date, it did not intend to recommend any enforcement action against the Company.

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Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
None.

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information
Our common stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “TWO”. As of February 24, 2022, 343,920,330 shares of common stock were issued and outstanding.

Holders
As of February 18, 2022, there were 605 registered holders and approximately 121,877 beneficial owners of our common stock.

Dividends
We have historically paid dividends on our common stock. All dividend distributions are authorized by our board of directors, in its discretion, and will depend on such items as our REIT taxable income, financial condition, maintenance of REIT status, and other factors that the board of directors may deem relevant from time to time. The holders of our common stock share proportionally on a per share basis in all declared dividends on our common stock. Dividends cannot be paid on our common stock unless we have paid full cumulative dividends on all classes of our preferred stock. We have paid full cumulative dividends on all classes of our preferred stock from the respective dates of issuance through December 31, 2021. We intend to continue to pay quarterly dividends on our common stock and to distribute to our common stockholders as dividends 100% of our REIT taxable income, on an annual basis.
We have not established a minimum dividend distribution level for our common stock. See Item 1A, “Risk Factors” and Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for information regarding the sources of funds used for dividends and for a discussion of factors, if any, which may adversely affect our ability to pay dividends in 2022 and thereafter.
Our stock transfer agent and registrar is Equiniti Trust Company. Requests for information from Equiniti Trust Company can be sent to Equiniti Trust Company, P.O. Box 64856, St. Paul, MN 55164-0856 and their telephone number is 1-800-468-9716.

Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans
Our Second Restated 2009 Equity Incentive Plan and our 2021 Equity Incentive Plan, or the Equity Incentive Plans, were adopted by our board of directors and approved by our stockholders for the purpose of enabling us to provide equity compensation to attract and retain qualified directors, officers, advisers, consultants and other personnel. The Equity Incentive Plans are administered by the compensation committee of our board of directors and permit the grants of restricted common stock, restricted stock units, or RSUs, performance-based awards (including performance share units, or PSUs), phantom shares, dividend equivalent rights and other equity-based awards. For a detailed description of the Equity Incentive Plans, see Note 17 - Equity Incentive Plans of the consolidated financial statements included under Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The following table presents certain information about the Equity Incentive Plans as of December 31, 2021:
December 31, 2021
Plan CategoryNumber of securities to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants and rightsWeighted-average exercise price of outstanding options, warrants and rightsNumber of securities remaining available for future issuance under equity compensation plans (excluding securities reflected in the first column of this table)
Equity compensation plans approved by stockholders (1)
— $— 17,428,602 
Equity compensation plans not approved by stockholders
— — — 
Total— $— 17,428,602 
___________________
(1)For a detailed description of the Equity Incentive Plans, see Note 17 - Equity Incentive Plans of the consolidated financial statements included under Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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Performance Graph
The following graph compares a stockholder’s cumulative total return, assuming $100 invested at December 31, 2016, with all reinvestment of dividends, as if such amounts had been invested in: (i) our common stock; (ii) the stocks included in the Standard and Poor’s 500 Stock Index, or S&P 500; and (iii) the stocks included in the Bloomberg REIT Mortgage Index.

COMPARISON OF CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN
Among Two Harbors Investment Corp.,
S&P 500 and Bloomberg REIT Mortgage Index

two-20211231_g1.jpg
December 31,
Index20212020201920182017
Two Harbors Investment Corp.$69.68 $69.62 $145.66 $113.21 $126.47 
S&P 500$233.28 $181.29 $153.13 $116.47 $121.82 
Bloomberg REIT Mortgage Index $132.08 $112.30 $144.35 $116.77 $120.27 

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
Our board of directors has adopted a share repurchase program that allows for the repurchase of up to an aggregate of 37,500,000 shares of our common stock. Shares may be repurchased from time to time through privately negotiated transactions or open market transactions, pursuant to a trading plan in accordance with Rules 10b5-1 and 10b-18 under the Exchange Act or by any combination of such methods. The manner, price, number and timing of share repurchases are subject to a variety of factors, including market conditions and applicable SEC rules. The share repurchase program does not require the purchase of any minimum number of shares, and, subject to SEC rules, purchases may be commenced or suspended at any time without prior notice. The share repurchase program does not have an expiration date. As of December 31, 2021, a total of 12,174,300 shares had been repurchased under the program for an aggregate cost of $201.5 million. We did not repurchase shares during the three months ended December 31, 2021.

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Item 6. [Reserved]

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This section of this Form 10-K generally discusses 2021 and 2020 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2021 and 2020. Discussions of 2019 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2020 and 2019 that are not included in this Form 10-K can be found in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.

General
We are a Maryland corporation focused on investing in and managing Agency residential mortgage-backed securities, or Agency RMBS, mortgage servicing rights, or MSR, and other financial assets, which we collectively refer to as our target assets. We operate as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, as defined under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code.
Our objective is to provide attractive risk-adjusted total return to our stockholders over the long term, primarily through dividends and secondarily through capital appreciation. We acquire and manage an investment portfolio of our target assets, which include the following:
Agency RMBS (which includes inverse interest-only Agency securities classified as “Agency Derivatives” for purposes of U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or U.S. GAAP), meaning RMBS whose principal and interest payments are guaranteed by a U.S. government agency, such as the Government National Mortgage Association (or Ginnie Mae), or a U.S. government sponsored enterprise, or GSE, such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (or Fannie Mae) or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (or Freddie Mac); and
MSR; and
Other financial assets comprising approximately 5% to 10% of the portfolio.
Historically, we viewed our target assets in two strategies that were based on our core competencies of understanding and managing prepayment and credit risk. Our rates strategy included assets that were primarily sensitive to changes in interest rates and prepayment speeds, specifically Agency RMBS and MSR. Our credit strategy included assets that were primarily sensitive to changes in inherent credit risk, including non-Agency securities, meaning securities that are not issued or guaranteed by Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac. In the first quarter of 2020, we experienced unprecedented market conditions as a result of the global COVID-19 pandemic, including unusually significant spread widening in both Agency RMBS and non-Agency securities. In response, we focused our efforts on raising excess liquidity and de-risking our portfolio. On March 25, 2020, we sold substantially all of our non-Agency securities in order to eliminate the risks posed by continued margin calls and ongoing funding concerns associated with the significant spread widening on these assets. We also sold approximately one-third of our Agency RMBS in order to reduce risk and raise cash to establish a strong defensive liquidity position to weather potential ongoing economic and market instability. Late in the first quarter of 2020, the U.S. Federal Reserve, or the Fed, committed to unlimited purchases of Agency RMBS. The Fed’s actions were successful in helping to stabilize that market; however, the resulting historic spread tightening in the first half of 2021 made investments in Agency RMBS less attractive. As a result, and in anticipation of an accelerated tapering of Fed purchases, we reduced our aggregate Agency RMBS/TBA position during the year ended December 31, 2021. In the ordinary course of business, we make investment decisions and allocate capital in accordance with our views on the changing risk/reward dynamics in the market and in our portfolio. Going forward, we expect our capital to be fully allocated to our strategy of pairing Agency RMBS and MSR.
Our Agency RMBS portfolio is comprised primarily of fixed rate mortgage-backed securities backed by single-family and multi-family mortgage loans. All of our principal and interest Agency RMBS are Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac mortgage pass-through certificates or collateralized mortgage obligations that carry an implied rating of “AAA,” or Ginnie Mae mortgage pass-through certificates, which are backed by the guarantee of the U.S. government. The majority of these securities consist of whole pools in which we own all of the investment interests in the securities.
Within our MSR business, we acquire MSR assets, which represent the right to control the servicing of residential mortgage loans and the obligation to service the loans in accordance with relevant standards, from high-quality originators. We do not directly service the mortgage loans underlying the MSR we acquire; rather, we contract with appropriately licensed third-party subservicers to handle substantially all servicing functions in the name of the subservicer. As the servicer of record, however, we remain accountable to the GSEs for all servicing matters and, accordingly, provide substantial oversight of each of our subservicers. We believe MSR are a natural fit for our portfolio over the long term. Our MSR business leverages our core competencies in prepayment and credit risk analytics and the MSR assets provide offsetting risks to our Agency RMBS, hedging both interest rate and mortgage spread risk. 
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In making our capital allocation decisions, we take into consideration a number of factors, including the opportunities available in the marketplace, the cost and availability of financing, and the cost of hedging interest rate, prepayment, credit and other portfolio risks. We have expertise in mortgage credit and may choose to invest again in those assets should the opportunity arise.
For the three months ended December 31, 2021, our net spread realized on the portfolio was higher than recent quarters due primarily to higher MSR servicing income, net of estimated amortization, offset by higher servicing expenses. Additionally, our higher yielding MSR now make up a larger proportion of our total portfolio due to prepayments and sales of Agency RMBS. Cost of financing for the three months ended December 31, 2021 was lower than the prior two quarters due to an increase in interest rate swap spread income. The following table provides the average annualized yield on our assets for the three months ended December 31, 2021, and the four immediately preceding quarters:
Three Months Ended
December 31,
2021
September 30,
2021
June 30,
2021
March 31,
2021
December 31,
2020
Average annualized portfolio yield (1)
3.72%3.33%2.72%2.25%2.26%
Cost of financing (2)
0.73%0.78%0.79%0.60%0.50%
Net spread2.99%2.55%1.93%1.65%1.76%
____________________
(1)Average annualized yield includes interest income on Agency RMBS and non-Agency securities and MSR servicing income, net of estimated amortization, and servicing expenses.
(2)Cost of financing includes swap interest rate spread and amortization of upfront payments made or received upon entering.

We seek to deploy moderate leverage as part of our investment strategy. We generally finance our Agency RMBS securities through short- and long-term borrowings structured as repurchase agreements. We also finance our MSR through revolving credit facilities, repurchase agreements, term notes payable and convertible senior notes.
Our Agency RMBS, given their liquidity and high credit quality, are eligible for higher levels of leverage, while MSR, with less liquidity and/or more exposure to prepayment, utilize lower levels of leverage. As a result, our debt-to-equity ratio is determined by our portfolio mix as well as many additional factors, including the liquidity of our portfolio, the availability and price of our financing, the diversification of our counterparties and their available capacity to finance our assets, and anticipated regulatory developments. Our debt-to-equity ratio is also directly correlated to the composition of our portfolio; specifically, the higher percentage of Agency RMBS we hold, the higher our debt-to-equity ratio is. We may alter the percentage allocation of our portfolio among our target assets depending on the relative value of the assets that are available to purchase from time to time, including at times when we are deploying proceeds from offerings we conduct. See Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Financial Condition - Financing” for further discussion.
We recognize that investing in our target assets is competitive and we compete with other entities for attractive investment opportunities. We believe that our significant focus in the residential market, the extensive mortgage market expertise of our investment team, our operational capabilities to invest in MSR, our strong analytics and our disciplined relative value investment approach give us a competitive advantage versus our peers.
We have elected to be treated as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. To qualify as a REIT we are required to meet certain investment and operating tests and annual distribution requirements. We generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxes on our taxable income to the extent that we annually distribute all of our net taxable income to stockholders, do not participate in prohibited transactions and maintain our intended qualification as a REIT. However, certain activities that we may perform may cause us to earn income which will not be qualifying income for REIT purposes. We have designated certain of our subsidiaries as taxable REIT subsidiaries, or TRSs, as defined in the Code, to engage in such activities. We also operate our business in a manner that will permit us to maintain our exemption from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, or the 1940 Act. While we do not currently originate or directly service residential mortgage loans, certain of our subsidiaries have obtained the requisite licenses and approvals to own and manage MSR.
Through August 14, 2020, we were externally managed and advised by PRCM Advisers LLC, a subsidiary of Pine River Capital Management L.P., under the terms of a Management Agreement between us and PRCM Advisers. We terminated the Management Agreement effective August 14, 2020 for “cause” in accordance with Section 15(a) thereof. On August 15, 2020, we completed our transition to self-management and directly hired the senior management team and other personnel who had historically provided services to us.

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Factors Affecting our Operating Results
Our net interest income includes income from our securities portfolio, including the amortization of purchase premiums and accretion of purchase discounts. Net interest income, as well as our servicing income, net of subservicing expenses, will fluctuate primarily as a result of changes in market interest rates, our financing costs and prepayment speeds on our assets. Interest rates, financing costs and prepayment rates vary according to the type of investment, conditions in the financial markets, competition and other factors, none of which can be predicted with any certainty.
On January 1, 2020 we adopted Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which changed the impairment model for most financial assets and certain other instruments. Valuation allowances for credit losses on available-for-sale, or AFS, debt securities are recognized, rather than direct reductions in the amortized cost of the investments, regardless of whether the impairment is considered to be other-than-temporary. We use a discounted cash flow method to estimate and recognize an allowance for credit losses on AFS securities, as detailed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, included under Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Fair Value Measurement
A significant portion of our assets and liabilities are reported at fair value and, therefore, our consolidated balance sheets and statements of comprehensive (loss) income are significantly affected by fluctuations in market prices. At December 31, 2021, approximately 77.9% of our total assets, or $9.4 billion, consisted of financial instruments recorded at fair value. See Note 10 - Fair Value to the consolidated financial statements, included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, for descriptions of valuation methodologies used to measure material assets and liabilities at fair value and details of the valuation models, key inputs to those models and significant assumptions utilized. Although we execute various hedging strategies to mitigate our exposure to changes in fair value, we cannot fully eliminate our exposure to volatility caused by fluctuations in market prices.
Any temporary change in the fair value of our AFS securities, excluding certain interest-only mortgage-backed securities, is recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income and does not impact our reported income (loss) for U.S. GAAP purposes, or GAAP net income (loss). However, beginning on January 1, 2020 (as discussed above), changes in the provision for credit losses on AFS securities are recognized immediately in GAAP net income (loss). Our GAAP net income (loss) is also affected by fluctuations in market prices on the remainder of our financial assets and liabilities recorded at fair value, including interest rate swap, cap and swaption agreements and certain other derivative instruments (i.e., TBAs, put and call options for TBAs, U.S. Treasury and Eurodollar futures, Markit IOS total return swaps and inverse interest-only securities), which are accounted for as derivative trading instruments under U.S. GAAP, certain interest-only mortgage-backed securities and MSR.
We have numerous internal controls in place to help ensure the appropriateness of fair value measurements. Significant fair value measures are subject to detailed analytics and management review and approval. Our entire investment portfolio reported at fair value is priced by third-party brokers and/or by independent pricing vendors. We generally receive three or more broker and vendor quotes on pass-through principal and interest (P&I) Agency RMBS, and generally receive multiple broker or vendor quotes on all other securities, including interest-only Agency RMBS and inverse interest-only Agency RMBS. We also receive three vendor quotes for the MSR in our investment portfolio. For Agency RMBS, the third-party pricing vendors and brokers use pricing models that commonly incorporate such factors as coupons, primary and secondary mortgage rates, rate reset periods, issuer, prepayment speeds, credit enhancements and expected life of the security. For MSR, vendors use pricing models that generally incorporate observable inputs such as principal balance, note rate, geographical location, loan-to-value (LTV) ratios, FICO, appraised value and other loan characteristics, along with observed market yields and trading levels. Pricing vendors will customarily incorporate loan servicing cost, servicing fee, ancillary income, and earnings rate on escrow as observable inputs. Unobservable or model-driven inputs include forecast cumulative defaults, default curve, forecast loss severity and forecast voluntary prepayment.
We evaluate the prices we receive from both third-party brokers and pricing vendors by comparing those prices to actual purchase and sale transactions, our internally modeled prices calculated based on market observable rates and credit spreads, and to each other both in current and prior periods. We review and may challenge valuations from third-party brokers and pricing vendors to ensure that such quotes and valuations are indicative of fair value as a result of this analysis. We then estimate the fair value of each security based upon the median of the final broker quotes received, and we estimate the fair value of MSR based upon the average of prices received from third-party vendors, subject to internally-established hierarchy and override procedures.
We utilize “bid side” pricing for our Agency RMBS and, as a result, certain assets, especially the most recent purchases, may realize a markdown due to the “bid-offer” spread. To the extent that this occurs, any economic effect of this would be reflected in accumulated other comprehensive income.
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Considerable judgment is used in forming conclusions and estimating inputs to our Level 3 fair value measurements. Level 3 inputs such as interest rate movements, prepayments speeds, credit losses and discount rates are inherently difficult to estimate. Changes to these inputs can have a significant effect on fair value measurements. Accordingly, there is no assurance that our estimates of fair value are indicative of the amounts that would be realized on the ultimate sale or exchange of these assets. At December 31, 2021, 18.2% of our total assets were classified as Level 3 fair value assets.

Critical Accounting Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP requires us to make certain judgments and assumptions, based on information available at the time of our preparation of the financial statements, in determining accounting estimates used in preparation of the statements. Accounting estimates are considered critical if the estimate requires us to make assumptions about matters that were highly uncertain at the time the accounting estimate was made and if different estimates reasonably could have been used in the reporting period or changes in the accounting estimate are reasonably likely to occur from period to period that would have a material impact on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. Our significant accounting policies are described in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, included under Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our most critical accounting policies involve our fair valuation of AFS securities, MSR and derivative instruments.
The methods used by us to estimate fair value for AFS securities, MSR and derivative instruments may produce a fair value calculation that may not be indicative of net realizable value or reflective of future fair values. Furthermore, while we believe that our valuation methods are appropriate and consistent with other market participants, the use of different methodologies, or assumptions, to determine the fair value of certain financial instruments could result in a different estimate of fair value at the reporting date. We use prices obtained from third-party pricing vendors or broker quotes deemed indicative of market activity and current as of the measurement date, which in periods of market dislocation, may have reduced transparency. For more information on our fair value measurements, see Note 10 to the consolidated financial statements, included under Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Additionally, the key economic assumptions and sensitivity of the fair value of MSR to immediate adverse changes in these assumptions are presented in Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements, included under Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Market Conditions and Outlook
The pace of U.S. economic growth picked up in the fourth quarter of 2021, accelerating to a 6.9% annualized rate while full year GDP growth of 5.5% was the highest in nearly four decades. The labor market remains very tight with the unemployment rate hovering at approximately 4.0% and other metrics such as job openings and quits remaining near record highs. There are signs of overheating as inflation has also reached multi-decade highs. During the fourth quarter of 2021, the Fed moved away from its stance that current inflation will be transitory and began taking steps to remove monetary accommodations to combat persistently high inflation. Expectations regarding the timeline for interest rate hikes by the Fed have accelerated, with the market now pricing in five hikes in 2022 compared to only one at the beginning of the fourth quarter.
RMBS funding has been stable although term funding rates moved quickly towards the end of 2021 as the market priced in faster Fed hikes. RMBS repo measured as a spread to the Fed Funds rate remained very tight at around 10 basis points, showing that markets remain deep and relatively inexpensive. The Fed’s overnight reverse repo facility remained elevated throughout the fourth quarter of 2021 and hit another all-time high at year end at $1.9 trillion.
Demand for mortgages remained strong through the end of 2021 but materially worsened in January 2022 as the market priced in a more accelerated reduction of the Fed’s balance sheet. Many analysts are projecting a record amount of supply for private markets which may be a headwind for mortgages in the coming year. However, with both higher rates and wider mortgage spreads, prepayments are expected to slow considerably, which will benefit both MSR and higher coupon RMBS.
This environment, with prepayment speeds beginning to slow and current coupon mortgage spreads widening, is one for which our portfolio strategy was designed. As a result, we are very constructive and optimistic about the forward outlook for Two Harbors and our paired Agency RMBS and MSR portfolio construction.
The following table provides the carrying value of our investment portfolio by product type:
(dollars in thousands)December 31,
2021
December 31,
2020
Agency RMBS$7,149,399 76.1 %$14,637,891 89.7 %
Mortgage servicing rights2,191,578 23.3 %1,596,153 9.8 %
Agency Derivatives40,911 0.5 %61,617 0.4 %
Non-Agency securities12,304 0.1 %13,031 0.1 %
Total$9,394,192 $16,308,692 
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Prepayment speeds and volatility due to interest rates
Our portfolio is subject to market risks, primarily interest rate risk and prepayment risk. We seek to offset a portion of our Agency pool market value exposure through our MSR and interest-only Agency RMBS portfolios. During periods of decreasing interest rates with rising prepayment speeds, the market value of our Agency pools generally increases and the market value of our interest-only securities and MSR generally decreases. The inverse relationship occurs when interest rates rise and prepayments fall. Interest rates moved lower throughout the first nine months of 2021, but retraced higher in the fourth quarter of 2021. Looking forward, prepayment speeds are expected to slow with both rising rates and the recent refinance activity that has lowered mortgage rates overall. In addition to changes in interest rates, changes in home price performance, key employment metrics and government programs, among other macroeconomic factors, can affect prepayment speeds. We believe our portfolio management approach, including our asset selection process, positions us to respond to a variety of market scenarios. Although we are unable to predict future interest rate movements, our strategy of pairing Agency RMBS with MSR, with a focus on managing various associated risks, including interest rate, prepayment, credit, mortgage spread and financing risk, is intended to generate attractive yields with a low level of sensitivity to changes in the yield curve, prepayments and interest rate cycles.
The following table provides the three-month average constant prepayment rate, or CPR, experienced by our Agency RMBS and MSR during the three months ended December 31, 2021, and the four immediately preceding quarters:
Three Months Ended
December 31,
2021
September 30,
2021
June 30,
2021
March 31,
2021
December 31,
2020
Agency RMBS27.7 %30.1 %32.3 %30.8 %27.0 %
Mortgage servicing rights22.1 %26.7 %29.0 %37.7 %41.2 %

Our Agency RMBS are primarily collateralized by pools of fixed-rate mortgage loans. Our Agency portfolio also includes securities with implicit prepayment protection, including lower loan balances (securities collateralized by loans of less than $200,000 in initial principal balance), higher LTVs (securities collateralized by loans with LTVs greater than or equal to 80%), certain geographic concentrations, loans secured by investor-owned properties and lower FICO scores. Our overall allocation of Agency RMBS and holdings of pools with specific characteristics are viewed in the context of our aggregate rates strategy, including MSR and related derivative hedging instruments. Additionally, the selection of securities with certain attributes is driven by the perceived relative value of the securities, which factors in the opportunities in the marketplace, the cost of financing and the cost of hedging interest rate, prepayment, credit and other portfolio risks. As a result, Agency RMBS capital allocation reflects management’s flexible approach to investing in the marketplace.
The following tables provide the carrying value of our Agency RMBS portfolio by underlying mortgage loan rate type:
December 31, 2021
(dollars in thousands)Principal/ Current FaceCarrying Value
Weighted Average CPR (1)
% Prepayment ProtectedGross Weighted Average Coupon RateAmortized CostAllowance for Credit LossesWeighted Average Loan Age (months)
Agency RMBS AFS:
30-Year Fixed
≤ 2.5%$1,243,928 $1,271,382 5.9 %— %3.3 %$1,272,323 $— 3
3.0%1,316,662 1,384,176 9.6 %100.0 %3.7 %1,381,936 — 
3.5%739,922 789,499 27.3 %100.0 %4.2 %769,989 — 29 
4.0%1,421,793 1,543,595 26.5 %100.0 %4.6 %1,478,444 — 49 
4.5%1,307,504 1,435,877 27.7 %100.0 %5.0 %1,373,076 — 47 
≥ 5.0%325,485 361,746 37.6 %98.0 %5.9 %344,543 — 84 
6,355,294 6,786,275 20.5 %81.2 %4.3 %6,620,311 — 31 
Other P&I56,069 62,228 53.9 %— %6.5 %61,739 — 224 
Interest-only3,198,447 300,896 20.2 %— %3.6 %305,577 (12,851)47 
Agency Derivatives247,101 40,911 18.6 %— %6.7 %33,237 — 206 
Total Agency RMBS$9,856,911 $7,190,310 76.6 %$7,020,864 $(12,851)
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December 31, 2020
(dollars in thousands)Principal/ Current FaceCarrying ValueWeighted Average CPR% Prepayment ProtectedGross Weighted Average Coupon RateAmortized CostAllowance for Credit LossesWeighted Average Loan Age (months)
Agency RMBS AFS:
30-Year Fixed
≤ 2.5%$1,878,319 $2,005,269 7.7 %100.0 %3.4 %$1,977,388 $— 
3.0%2,359,772 2,541,676 19.3 %100.0 %3.7 %2,433,757 — 14 
3.5%3,327,048 3,636,988 28.5 %100.0 %4.2 %3,485,035 — 17 
4.0%2,642,730 2,911,556 37.5 %100.0 %4.6 %2,751,139 — 36 
4.5%2,276,487 2,538,418 34.3 %100.0 %5.0 %2,400,043 — 35 
≥ 5.0%519,976 590,044 33.6 %98.4 %5.8 %551,230 — 65 
13,004,332 14,223,951 27.4 %99.9 %4.3 %13,598,592 — 24 
Other P&I99,023 113,302 9.6 %— %6.6 %110,002 — 226 
Interest-only3,649,556 300,638 14.0 %— %3.5 %315,876 (17,889)48 
Agency Derivatives318,162 61,617 16.5 %— %6.7 %45,618 — 195 
Total Agency RMBS$17,071,073 $14,699,508 96.7 %$14,070,088 $(17,889)
____________________
(1)Weighted average actual 1-month annualized CPR released at the beginning of the following month based on RMBS held as of the preceding month-end.

We believe MSR are a natural fit for our portfolio over the long term. Our MSR business leverages our core competencies in prepayment and credit risk analytics and the MSR assets provide offsetting risk to our Agency RMBS, hedging both interest rate and mortgage spread risk. The following table summarizes activity related to the unpaid principal balance, or UPB, of loans underlying our MSR portfolio for the three months ended December 31, 2021, and the four immediately preceding quarters:
Three Months Ended
(in thousands)December 31,
2021
September 30,
2021
June 30,
2021
March 31,
2021
December 31,
2020
UPB at beginning of period$194,393,942 $185,209,738 $179,014,244 $177,861,483 $156,444,362 
Purchases of mortgage servicing rights
13,562,240 29,347,318 22,983,402 22,389,501 43,363,541 
Sales of mortgage servicing rights
9,065 (3,633,709)— — (33,232)
Scheduled payments(1,441,835)(1,407,996)(1,283,474)(1,233,382)(1,161,019)
Prepaid(11,966,741)(14,564,141)(15,119,403)(20,337,506)(21,562,076)
Other changes(786,105)(557,268)(385,031)334,148 809,907 
UPB at end of period$193,770,566 $194,393,942 $185,209,738 $179,014,244 $177,861,483 

Counterparty exposure and leverage ratio
We monitor counterparty exposure in our broker, banking and lending counterparties on a daily basis. We believe our broker and banking counterparties are well-capitalized organizations, and we attempt to manage our cash balances across these organizations to reduce our exposure to any single counterparty.
As of December 31, 2021, we had entered into repurchase agreements with 39 counterparties, 20 of which had outstanding balances at December 31, 2021. In addition, we held short- and long-term borrowings under revolving credit facilities, long-term term notes payable and short- and long-term unsecured convertible senior notes. As of December 31, 2021, the debt-to-equity ratio funding our AFS securities, MSR and Agency Derivatives, which includes unsecured borrowings under convertible senior notes, was 3.2:1.0.
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As of December 31, 2021, we held $1.2 billion in cash and cash equivalents, approximately $141.7 million of unpledged Agency securities and derivatives and $11.9 million of unpledged non-Agency securities. As a result, we had an overall estimated unused borrowing capacity on our unpledged securities of approximately $133.5 million. As of December 31, 2021, we held approximately $60.8 million of unpledged MSR and $96.8 million of unpledged servicing advances. Overall, we had unused committed borrowing capacity on MSR asset and servicing advance financing facilities of $313.4 million and $180.8 million, respectively. Generally, unused borrowing capacity may be the result of our election not to utilize certain financing, as well as delays in the timing in which funding is provided, insufficient collateral or the inability to meet lenders’ eligibility requirements for specific types of asset classes.
We also monitor exposure to our MSR counterparties. We may be required to make representations and warranties to investors in the loans underlying the MSR we own; however, some of our MSR were purchased on a bifurcated basis, meaning the representation and warranty obligations remain with the seller. If the representations and warranties we make prove to be inaccurate, we may be obligated to repurchase certain mortgage loans, which may impact the profitability of our portfolio. Although we obtain similar representations and warranties from the counterparty from which we acquired the relevant asset, if those representations and warranties do not directly mirror those we make to the investor, or if we are unable to enforce the representations and warranties against the counterparty for a variety of reasons, including the financial condition or insolvency of the counterparty, we may not be able to seek indemnification from our counterparties for any losses attributable to the breach.
LIBOR transition
LIBOR has been used extensively in the U.S. and globally as a “benchmark” or “reference rate” for various commercial and financial contracts, including corporate and municipal bonds and loans, floating rate mortgages, asset-backed securities, consumer loans, and interest rate swaps and other derivatives. On March 5, 2021, Intercontinental Exchange Inc. announced that ICE Benchmark Administration Limited, the administrator of LIBOR, intends to stop publication of the majority of USD-LIBOR tenors on June 30, 2023. In the U.S., the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, or ARRC, has identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate, or SOFR, as its preferred alternative rate for U.S. dollar-based LIBOR. SOFR is a measure of the cost of borrowing cash overnight, collateralized by U.S. Treasury securities, and is based on directly observable U.S. Treasury-backed repurchase transactions. The ARRC has proposed a paced market transition plan to SOFR, and various organizations are currently working on industry wide and company-specific transition plans as it relates to derivatives and cash markets exposed to LIBOR. We have material contracts that are indexed to USD-LIBOR and are monitoring this activity, evaluating the related risks and our exposure, and have already amended terms to transition to an alternative benchmark, where necessary. All of our financing arrangements and derivative instruments that incorporate LIBOR as the referenced rate either mature prior to the phase out of LIBOR or have provisions in place that provide for an alternative to LIBOR upon its phase-out. Additionally, each series of our fixed-to-floating preferred stock that becomes callable at the time the stock begins to pay a LIBOR-based rate has existing LIBOR cessation fallback language.

Summary of Results of Operations and Financial Condition
During the first quarter of 2020, we experienced unprecedented market conditions as a result of the global COVID-19 pandemic, including unusually significant spread widening in both Agency RMBS and non-Agency securities. In response, we focused our efforts on raising excess liquidity and de-risking our portfolio. On March 25, 2020, we sold substantially all of our non-Agency securities in order to eliminate the risks posed by continued margin calls and ongoing funding concerns associated with the significant spread widening on these assets. We also sold approximately one-third of our Agency RMBS portfolio in order to reduce risk and raise cash to establish a strong defensive liquidity position to weather potential ongoing economic and market instability. These actions, occurring at a time of wide spreads and low prices, resulted in large realized losses in the first quarter of 2020 and a corresponding decline in book value.
Late in the first quarter of 2020, the Fed committed to unlimited purchases of Agency RMBS. The Fed’s actions were successful in helping to stabilize that market; however, the resulting historic spread tightening in the first half of 2021 made investments in Agency RMBS less attractive. As a result, and in anticipation of an accelerated tapering of Fed purchases, we reduced our aggregate Agency RMBS/TBA position during the year ended December 31, 2021. In the ordinary course of business, we make investment decisions and allocate capital in accordance with our views on the changing risk/reward dynamics in the market and in our portfolio.
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Certain mortgage loan forbearance programs were established in connection with the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act, or CARES Act. As the servicer of record for the MSR assets in our portfolio, we may be responsible for continuing to advance principal, interest, taxes and insurance on mortgage loans that are in forbearance, delinquency or default. At December 31, 2021, our forbearance rate had declined to less than one percent of our MSR portfolio by loan count. We are confident in our ability to meet our servicing advance obligations and have entered into a revolving credit facility to finance these advances. Further, a significant number of borrowers, who were previously eligible for forbearance plan extensions, have reached or are reaching their terminal forbearance plan expiration. This has led to improvement in actual and projected forbearance rates in our portfolio; however, over time, delinquencies and defaults in our MSR portfolio could increase if borrowers who were in forbearance are unable to resume making their monthly mortgage payments.
Our GAAP net loss attributable to common stockholders was $15.0 million and GAAP net income attributable to common stockholders was $128.8 million ($(0.05) and $0.43 per diluted weighted average share) for the three and twelve months ended December 31, 2021, respectively, as compared to GAAP net income attributable to common stockholders of $192.2 million and GAAP net loss attributable to common stockholders of $1.7 billion ($0.68 and $(6.24) per diluted weighted average share) for the three and twelve months ended December 31, 2020, respectively.
With our accounting treatment for AFS securities, unrealized fluctuations in the market values of AFS securities, excluding certain interest-only securities and securities with an allowance for credit losses, do not impact our GAAP net income (loss) or taxable income but are recognized on our consolidated balance sheets as a change in stockholders’ equity under “accumulated other comprehensive income.” For the three and twelve months ended December 31, 2021, net unrealized losses on AFS securities recognized as other comprehensive loss, net of tax, were $113.6 million and $455.3 million, respectively. This, combined with GAAP net loss attributable to common stockholders of $15.0 million and GAAP net income attributable to common stockholders of $128.8 million for the three and twelve months ended December 31, 2021, respectively, resulted in comprehensive loss attributable to common stockholders of $128.6 million and $326.5 million for the three and twelve months ended December 31, 2021, respectively. For the three and twelve months ended December 31, 2020, net unrealized losses on AFS securities recognized as other comprehensive loss, net of tax, were $78.7 million and $47.8 million, respectively. This, combined with GAAP net income attributable to common stockholders of $192.2 million and GAAP net loss attributable to common stockholders of $1.7 billion, resulted in comprehensive income attributable to common stockholders of $113.5 million and comprehensive loss attributable to common stockholders of $1.8 billion for the three and twelve months ended December 31, 2020, respectively.
Our book value per common share for U.S. GAAP purposes was $5.87 at December 31, 2021, a decrease from $7.63 per common share at December 31, 2020. For the year ended December 31, 2021, we recognized comprehensive loss attributable to common stockholders of $326.5 million and declared common dividends of $205.6 million, which drove the overall decrease in book value.
Although some uncertainty remains regarding the future effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the actions that may be taken by federal, state and local governmental authorities and the GSEs in response, the Agency RMBS market has stabilized and there is more clarity regarding forbearance levels and deferral programs on Agency MSR. Our liquidity position is strong, with $1.2 billion in unrestricted cash as of December 31, 2021. We continue to believe the pace of economic recovery and the tapering of Agency RMBS purchases by the Fed will lead to spread normalization, at which time we expect to increase leverage and deploy excess cash into investments at more attractive levels.
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The following tables present the components of our comprehensive (loss) income for the three and twelve months ended December 31, 2021 and 2020:
(in thousands, except share data)Three Months EndedYear Ended
Income Statement Data:December 31,December 31,
2021202020212020
(unaudited)(unaudited)
Interest income:
Available-for-sale securities$32,729 $72,071 $167,310 $515,685 
Other276 429 1,287 9,365 
Total interest income33,005 72,500 168,597 525,050 
Interest expense:
Repurchase agreements4,562 11,001 25,774 233,069 
Revolving credit facilities5,050 3,513 22,425 12,261 
Term notes payable3,251 3,296 12,936 14,974 
Convertible senior notes7,295 4,831 28,038 19,197 
Federal Home Loan Bank advances— — — 1,747 
Total interest expense20,158 22,641 89,173 281,248 
Net interest income12,847 49,859 79,424 243,802 
Other income (loss):
Gain (loss) on investment securities
1,626 37,363 121,617 (999,859)
Servicing income
125,511 100,549 468,406 443,351 
(Loss) gain on servicing asset
(131,828)2,522 (114,941)(935,697)
Gain (loss) on interest rate swap and swaption agreements
36,989 (14,689)42,091 (310,806)
(Loss) gain on other derivative instruments
(11,565)81,289 (251,283)90,023 
Other income (loss)1,856 474 (3,845)1,422 
Total other income (loss)22,589 207,508 262,045 (1,711,566)
Expenses:
Management fees— — — 31,738 
Servicing expenses21,582 24,217 86,250 94,266 
Compensation and benefits6,396 11,220 35,041 37,723 
Other operating expenses6,648 7,237 28,759 28,626 
Restructuring charges— (294)— 5,706 
Total expenses34,626 42,380 150,050 198,059 
Income (loss) before income taxes
810 214,987 191,419 (1,665,823)
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes2,104 3,816 4,192 (35,688)
Net (loss) income
(1,294)211,171 187,227 (1,630,135)
Dividends on preferred stock13,747 18,951 58,458 75,802 
Net (loss) income attributable to common stockholders
$(15,041)$192,220 $128,769 $(1,705,937)
Basic (loss) earnings per weighted average common share
$(0.05)$0.70 $0.43 $(6.24)
Diluted (loss) earnings per weighted average common share
$(0.05)$0.68 $0.43 $(6.24)
Dividends declared per common share$0.17 $0.17 $0.68 $0.50 
Weighted average number of shares of common stock:
Basic
335,100,737 273,699,079 297,772,001 273,600,947 
Diluted
335,100,737 291,870,229 298,043,538 273,600,947 
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(in thousands)Three Months EndedYear Ended
Income Statement Data:December 31,December 31,
2021202020212020


(unaudited)(unaudited)
Comprehensive (loss) income:
Net (loss) income$(1,294)$211,171 $187,227 $(1,630,135)
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax:
Unrealized loss on available-for-sale securities
(113,553)(78,739)(455,255)(47,799)
Other comprehensive loss
(113,553)(78,739)(455,255)(47,799)
Comprehensive (loss) income
(114,847)132,432 (268,028)(1,677,934)
Dividends on preferred stock13,747 18,951 58,458 75,802 
Comprehensive (loss) income attributable to common stockholders
$(128,594)$113,481 $(326,486)$(1,753,736)
(in thousands)December 31,
2021
December 31,
2020
Balance Sheet Data:
(unaudited)
Available-for-sale securities$7,161,703 $14,650,922 
Mortgage servicing rights$2,191,578 $1,596,153 
Total assets$12,114,305 $19,515,921 
Repurchase agreements$7,656,445 $15,143,898 
Revolving credit facilities$420,761 $283,830 
Term notes payable$396,776 $395,609 
Convertible senior notes$424,827 $286,183 
Total stockholders’ equity$2,743,953 $3,088,926 

Results of Operations
The following analysis focuses on financial results during the three and twelve months ended December 31, 2021 and 2020. The analysis of our financial results during the three and twelve months ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 is omitted from this Form 10-K and included in Part II Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, which analysis is incorporated by reference.
Interest Income
Interest income decreased from $72.5 million and $525.1 million for the three and twelve months ended December 31, 2020 to $33.0 million and $168.6 million for the same periods in 2021 due to sales of both Agency RMBS and non-Agency securities that occurred during the first quarter of 2020, further sales of Agency RMBS during the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 and higher amortization recognized on Agency RMBS due to prepayments.
Interest Expense
Interest expense decreased from $22.6 million and $281.2 million for the three and twelve months ended December 31, 2020, respectively, to $20.2 million and $89.2 million for the same periods in 2021 due to lower borrowing balances related to the sale of both Agency RMBS and non-Agency securities and a lower interest rate environment.

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Net Interest Income
The following tables present the components of interest income and average annualized net asset yield earned by asset type, the components of interest expense and average annualized cost of funds on borrowings incurred by collateral type, and net interest income and average annualized net interest spread for the three and twelve months ended December 31, 2021 and 2020:
Three Months Ended December 31, 2021Year Ended December 31, 2021
(dollars in thousands)
Average Balance (1)
Interest Income/Expense
Net Yield/Cost of Funds (2)
Average Balance (1)
Interest Income/Expense
Net Yield/Cost of Funds (2)
Interest-earning assets:
Available-for-sale securities$6,067,568 $32,729 2.2 %$8,450,440 $167,310 2.0 %